Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Island Arc Development
New paleomagnetic data are presented in the context of a revised tectonostratigraphic subdivision of the Mesozoic-Tertiary oceanic basement of Costa Rica. We present the tectonostratigraphic characteristics and areal extent of four terranes (Chorotega, Nicoya, Golfito, and Burica) bordered toward the Middle America Trench by the Tertiary Osa-Caño Accretionary Complex. The paleomagnetic data are derived from Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene pelagic limestones.
The Chorotega Terrane constitutes most of the southern Middle American Landbridge and was the western edge of the Caribbean plate during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. The Nicoya Terrane comprises the Santa Elena Peninsula and most of the outer Nicoya Peninsula. The Nicoya Terrane includes the Nicoya Complex (sensu stricto) and should therefore probably be regarded as a composite terrane. The Golfito Terrane forms the Golfito region and extends into Panama to the Azuero Peninsula. The Late Cretaceous basement of the terrane is thought to have formed a marginal piece of the Caribbean oceanic plateau, transported northward by strike slip along the rim of the Caribbean plate. The Burica Terrane forms the Burica Peninsula. The terrane is thought to represent an accreted, structurally high piece of a primitive island arc. The inner Osa Peninsula is formed by a thick pile of oceanic basalts including Late Cretaceous to Eocene sediments. The outer Osa Peninsula and the Caño Island are built by the Osa-Caño Accretionary Complex, a mélange-type complex characterized by strongly deformed turbidites and hemipelagic and pelagic sediments that range in age from Late Cretaceous to Miocene. The exotic terranes are thought to have originated outboard in the Paleopacific, been brought into contact with the Caribbean plate boundary by plate convergence, and then been moved farther north by strike-slip motion along the margin.
The paleomagnetic data for the Chorotega Terrane indicate an origin close to its present latitude and no significant rotation relative to South America since Late Cretaceous time. The paleomagnetic data obtained from the Nicoya Terrane imply a low southerly Late Cretaceous paleolatitude and almost no rotation relative to the Chorotega Terrane. The Nicoya Terrane was about 16° of latitude south relative to the Chorotega Terrane in Late Cretaceous times. The paleomagnetic data from the Golfito Terrane indicate a Late Cretaceous equatorial paleolatitude and counterclockwise rotation of about 60° relative to the Chorotega Terrane. Similar paleomagnetic data were obtained from the Azuero Peninsula in southwestern Panama. The paleomagnetic data from the Burica Terrane indicate a low northerly latitude in the Paleocene and a counterclockwise rotation of nearly 90° relative to the Chorotega Terrane.