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In paleoclimatic modeling, orographic variances are a key component. The Permian was a period of elevated, lofty, and rugged topographic settings that resulted from two kinds of uplift: orogeny and epeirogeny. Pangean orogenic uplift created mountain ranges that were among the largest in the Earth’s history. Epeirogenic movements resulted in uplifts of approximately 7 km of undeformed strata. Whether epeirogenic uplifts created significant elevation increase or whether sufficient denudation in the Permian accompanied uplift so that significant relief remained is difficult to determine. Yet in places epeirogenic uplift exceeded the denudation rate, resulting in elevated regions that may have been of basin to multibasin dimension.

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