Genesis of the lower crustal garnet–orthopyroxene tonalites (S-type) of the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, northern Japan
T. Shimura, M. Komatsu, J. T. Iiyama, 1992. "Genesis of the lower crustal garnet–orthopyroxene tonalites (S-type) of the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt, northern Japan", The Second Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks, P. E. Brown, B. W. Chappell
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The Hidaka Metamorphic Belt (HMB) in Hokkaido, northern Japan, consists of tilted metamorphic layers of an island-arc type crust from lower (granulite facies) to upper (very low-grade metasedimentary) horizons. Abundant granitic rocks, mainly S-type tonalites of crustal origin, intrude various metamorphic layers and are classified into four depth types, namely upper, middle, lower and basal. The basal orthopyroxene-garnet (S-type) tonalities were intruded into granulite facies country rocks. Textural and compositional evidence from minerals in the basal tonalite indicates that the crystallisation sequence is Grt–Pl–Opx–Bt–Qtz–Crd–Kfs, and that crystallisation took place at about 600 MPa and 900°C–700°C.
Some crystallisation experiments were carried out in an internally heated pressure vessel, using the basal tonalite, under the conditions of 300 and 600 MPa, 700–900°C, and with 0–20 wt% H2O, respectively. The results show that the primary S-type tonalite magma was at a temperature above 900°C and contained 3–4 wt% H2O at the beginning of crystallisation. In order to study the influence of normative orthoclase content on orthopyroxene crystallisation, some starting materials also included 15, 20 and 25% normative orthoclase, by adding KAlSi3O8 gel to the rock powder. Normative orthoclase content has an influence on the subliquidus crystallisation limit of orthopyroxene.
The changes in P–T conditions and chemical composition of the magma during ascent would generate the sequence from the basal to upper S-type granite. Opx-free S-type granitic magma can be generated from lower crustal Grt–Opx S-type granitic magma, by differentiation with falling magmatic temperature.