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The most significant global climatic effects of volcanic eruptions are related to the stratospheric injection of sulfuric-acid aerosols. In addition, large halogen emissions during some explosive eruptions may affect atmospheric chemistry and lead to ozone depletion, but the proportion of halogen adsorbed on tephra and incorporated in proximal fallout versus halogen transported to the stratosphere is unknown. The role of volcanic ash in modification of the Earth's thermal radiation budget is short lived and minor, because of particle aggregation and consequently short atmospheric residence time. Tephra transport in the atmosphere is thus less than 3,000 km for 100-μm silicate particles,...

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