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Worldwide volcanism coincident with the end of the Cretaceous provides the source of iridium, shocked minerals, the carbon (CO2) excursion, and the attendant greenhouse effect (from 18O data). Reproductive stress under greenhouse conditions may have been a deciding factor in extinction of terrestrial fauna. Acidification of the upper ocean due to volcanic CO2 may be the responsible factor in the K/T nannoplankton event. The K/T transition is characterized by extensive paludification, forming bryophytic bogs, the source of K/T coal beds. Mantle convection is deemed the source of the worldwide volcanism attending the Late Cretaceous. Episodic mantle convection may have been responsible for other extinction events.

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