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Book Chapter

Basement-cover imbrication south of the Main Mantle Thrust, north Pakistan

By
Peter J. Treloar
Peter J. Treloar
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Michael P. Coward
Michael P. Coward
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Mathew P. Williams
Mathew P. Williams
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M. Asif Khan
M. Asif Khan
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Published:
January 01, 1989

India collided with the northern Kohistan/Asian plate at about 55 Ma. Subsequently, Asia has overridden India, developing a wide range of thrust slices at the top of the Indian plate. Balanced sections in the imbricated sedimentary cover of the Indian plate indicate a minimum displacement of more than 470 km since collision. This requires the Kohistan region to the north to be underlain by underthrusted middle to lower Indian crust, the internal ductile deformation and thickening of which accounts for the main overall crustal thickening beneath Kohistan. In the Besham area of north Pakistan, a stratigraphy can be documented for the northern part of the Indian plate that includes basement sequences of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses of the Besham Group, and of Precambrian schists of the Tanawal Formation intruded by the Swat-Mansehra granite. The basement rocks are unconformably overlain by carbonate-rich Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks of both the basement and cover sequences were metamorphosed at an early stage of the Himalayan deformation during tectonic burial associated with crustal thickening. Structures just south of the suture related to this crustal thickening include a sequence of ductile mylonites thickened by thrust-related folding, a folded thrust stack involving basement rocks imbricated with cover strata, and late cross-folds. Much of the thickening of the Indian plate in the footwall of the Main Mantle Thrust can be related to the necessary changes in thrust wedge shape as it climbs through the crust.

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GSA Special Papers

Tectonics of the western Himalayas

Lawrence L. Malinconico, Jr.
Lawrence L. Malinconico, Jr.
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Robert J. Lillie
Robert J. Lillie
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Geological Society of America
Volume
232
ISBN print:
9780813722320
Publication date:
January 01, 1989

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