A. L. Washburn, 1947. "RECONNAISSANCE GEOLOGY OF PORTIONS OF VICTORIA ISLAND AND ADJACENT REGIONS ARCTIC CANADA", Reconnaissance Geology of Portions of Victoria Island and Adjacent Regions Arctic Canada, A. L. Washburn
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Reconnaissance field work on Victoria Island and adjacent regions of Arctic Canada, and a complete review of widely scattered geologic references show that: (1) Sediments and trap rocks of probable pre-Cambrian age cover considerable areas on Victoria Island, and fossiliferous Ordovician and possibly Silurian strata also occur; (2) at least a large portion and probably all of Victoria Island was glaciated during the Pleistocene, as shown by eskers and other glacial deposits, and by striae, parallel through long distances over a considerable area; (3) Victoria Island has recently emerged at least 500 feet, as demonstrated by well-preserved emerged strand lines and marine fossils. In addition widespread Pleistocene glaciation of the Arctic Archipelago as a whole is suggested though not proved by the known greater glaciation of some areas, and the known emergence (suggesting isostatic adjustment from ice load) not only of areas that were demonstrably glaciated but also of at least most (and probably all) of the remaining areas in the Arctic Archipelago.
On a basis of eye-witness accounts and geologic considerations, ice rafting appears to be of considerable quantitative importance. The most significant gradational processes in this region are believed to be mass-wasting movements (particularly solifluction), which far outweigh fluvial activity. This conclusion is based on the generally poorly integrated character of the drainage as contrasted with the areal prevalence and evident effectiveness of mass wasting.