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This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Appendix A

See foldout. A more detailed topographic map can be found in the online publication.

Appendix B

Figure A.3 provides a correlation/comparison of Permian ages between the ‘International Stratigraphic Chart’ and the ‘Tethyan Time Scale’.

Appendix C

Appendix D (inconsistencies in maps)

Inconsistencies are found between the BRGM 1:100 000 and 1:250 000 maps within the Hawasina formations. In all cases we have followed the 1:100 000 maps rather the 1:250 000 map.

  1. The geological map of Nazwa (1:250 000; Béchennec et al. 1992b) depicts the Hawasina unit immediately E of Nizwa as Umar Group, while the geological map of Birkat Al-Mawz (1:100 000; Hutin et al. 1986) depicts the same area as Al-Aridh Group.

  2. Hawasina rocks west of Rustaq are differently mapped in the 1:250 000 and 1:100 000 map scale (Béchennec et al. 1992a; Beurrier et al. 1986, respectively). In the 1:250 000 map some rocks are presented as Matabat Fm. (Hamrat Duru Group) while the same area in the 1:100 000 map is Umar Group.

  3. Hawasina rocks in the Baid area (southwestern margin of the SHD) have been mapped differently. In the 1:100 000 map of Fanja (Villey et al. 1986c) some rocks are mapped as part of the Umar Group, while in the 1:250 000 map of Seeb (Béchennec et al. 1992a) mapped the same outcrops as Hamrat Duru Group.

Fig. A.1.

Geological map of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Note that the northeastern margin of the Saih Hatat Dome consists of HP rocks of the Arabian Margin, which have been thrust by some tens of kilometres. They are, thus, parautochthounous. The Public Authority for Mining in Oman kindly provided permission for publication of this map. All used maps are cited in the map itself and available at the Public Authority for Mining in Oman.

Fig. A.1.

Geological map of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Note that the northeastern margin of the Saih Hatat Dome consists of HP rocks of the Arabian Margin, which have been thrust by some tens of kilometres. They are, thus, parautochthounous. The Public Authority for Mining in Oman kindly provided permission for publication of this map. All used maps are cited in the map itself and available at the Public Authority for Mining in Oman.

Fig. A.2.

Correlation of the tectono-stratigraphic units and events at the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Subsurface formation names or their equivalents (if existing) are shown in brackets below the names. Main rock lithologies of each unit are indicated. A schematic sketch of the Hawasina Basin and subunits, including their width, is depicted in the upper part of the figure (modified after Béchennec et al. 1990). Palaeolatitude of Oman after Hughes Clarke (2006) and Droste (2014). Note that the size of Oman is exaggerated. Time scale after Gradstein et al. (2012). Note that the ages of the formations within the Nafun groups vary according to different authors as summarized in Al-Husseini (2014, his table 1). See text for details of the tectonic/glacial events and stress directions.

Fig. A.2.

Correlation of the tectono-stratigraphic units and events at the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Subsurface formation names or their equivalents (if existing) are shown in brackets below the names. Main rock lithologies of each unit are indicated. A schematic sketch of the Hawasina Basin and subunits, including their width, is depicted in the upper part of the figure (modified after Béchennec et al. 1990). Palaeolatitude of Oman after Hughes Clarke (2006) and Droste (2014). Note that the size of Oman is exaggerated. Time scale after Gradstein et al. (2012). Note that the ages of the formations within the Nafun groups vary according to different authors as summarized in Al-Husseini (2014, his table 1). See text for details of the tectonic/glacial events and stress directions.

Fig. A.3.

Comparison of the Permian Period between the ‘International Stratigraphic Chart’ and ‘Tethyan Time Scale’. Modified from Angiolini et al. (2016).

Fig. A.3.

Comparison of the Permian Period between the ‘International Stratigraphic Chart’ and ‘Tethyan Time Scale’. Modified from Angiolini et al. (2016).

Table A.1.

Thermal springs of the study area

#SpringProvinceWilayat (district)LatitudeLongitudeT (°C)EC (µS/cm)
1Al KhadhraS BatinahRustaq23.35903557.31112840892
2Al KasfahS BatinahRustaq23.39403357.41103045894
3SaighiS BatinahRustaq23.38766057.42960439812
4Al GhareedhS BatinahNakhl23.37522557.82682237738
5SakhnanS BatinahNakhl23.37392057.83450536709
6Al ThawarahS BatinahNakhl23.37791057.83668237687
7SubaykhahS BatinahW. Maawil23.50477057.919691511375
8SaleelS BatinahW. Maawil23.51215357.935619411237
9Hammam SharqiDakhliyahBidbid23.45410658.10263541759
10Hammam Ansab or Al-AliMuscatBawsher23.46945358.323011661420
11HeedMuscatBawsher23.52846458.382122411084
12Hammam GhalaMuscatBawsher23.52964258.383682421086
13Falaj BawsherMuscatBawsher23.53552158.398906361000
14Al GharMuscatBawsher23.53647158.39876037996
15SadMuscatBawsher23.54193858.40732037960
16Al HobeDakhliyahSemail23.32006057.94728637500
17HannahDakhliyahSemail23.29289457.91799438524
18Ghaiz Al Dhahia or Al-MahlDakhliyahSemail23.28876057.91908045652
19ManabikDakhliyahSemail23.28084757.91604445664
20QuryDakhliyahSemail23.21803957.87099235473
21Hammam SayjahDakhliyahSemail23.21451357.87162439539
22Hammam AfiahDakhliyahSemail23.10401757.823819n.a.n.a.
23Wadi Daiqa GorgeMuscatQuriyat23.07063058.774270n.a.n.a.
#SpringProvinceWilayat (district)LatitudeLongitudeT (°C)EC (µS/cm)
1Al KhadhraS BatinahRustaq23.35903557.31112840892
2Al KasfahS BatinahRustaq23.39403357.41103045894
3SaighiS BatinahRustaq23.38766057.42960439812
4Al GhareedhS BatinahNakhl23.37522557.82682237738
5SakhnanS BatinahNakhl23.37392057.83450536709
6Al ThawarahS BatinahNakhl23.37791057.83668237687
7SubaykhahS BatinahW. Maawil23.50477057.919691511375
8SaleelS BatinahW. Maawil23.51215357.935619411237
9Hammam SharqiDakhliyahBidbid23.45410658.10263541759
10Hammam Ansab or Al-AliMuscatBawsher23.46945358.323011661420
11HeedMuscatBawsher23.52846458.382122411084
12Hammam GhalaMuscatBawsher23.52964258.383682421086
13Falaj BawsherMuscatBawsher23.53552158.398906361000
14Al GharMuscatBawsher23.53647158.39876037996
15SadMuscatBawsher23.54193858.40732037960
16Al HobeDakhliyahSemail23.32006057.94728637500
17HannahDakhliyahSemail23.29289457.91799438524
18Ghaiz Al Dhahia or Al-MahlDakhliyahSemail23.28876057.91908045652
19ManabikDakhliyahSemail23.28084757.91604445664
20QuryDakhliyahSemail23.21803957.87099235473
21Hammam SayjahDakhliyahSemail23.21451357.87162439539
22Hammam AfiahDakhliyahSemail23.10401757.823819n.a.n.a.
23Wadi Daiqa GorgeMuscatQuriyat23.07063058.774270n.a.n.a.

Locations (#) are shown in figure 4.1 (Scharf et al. 2021, Chapter 4, this Memoir) Note, the springs #2 (Al Kasfah) and #10 (Hammam Ansab) are the same as springs #33 and #37 in Table A.2. Wadi Daiqa Gorge (#23) after Alan Heward pers. comm. (an older name for the gorge, stemming from the journey of Lees and Cox is the ‘Devils Gap’. That was the name attributed to it by sailors as it is a readily recognizable cleft on the skyline when looked at from a distance, Heward, pers. comm.). EC, electrical conductivity; n.a., not available.

Table A.2.

Hyperalkaline springs in the study area afterPaukert et al. (2012, highlighted in bold print) andChavagnac et al. (2013a, b )

#Site of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) and Paukert et al. (2012) Spring's nameLatitudeLongitudeAltitude (m)T (°C)pHEC (µS/cm)
242Nidab23°12′57″58°08′25″47333.211.5n.a.
253Yellowstone du pauvre22°49′10″57°48′48″47920.810.1n.a.
26
27
5
6
Little Grand Canon22°50′49″58°03′22″53328.3
32.2
11.8
11.7
n.a.
OM10_02LFalaij22°50′16″58°03′24″n.a.30.811.52230
OM10_03RFalaij22°50′33″58°03′29″n.a.27.911.61967
288Izki les 2 puits22°55′40″57°46′20″53023.47.8n.a.
2910Le partage du midi22°52′26″57°31′12″47222.411.7n.a.
3011Lac bleu de Bahla22°59′28″57°17′34″56226.310.8n.a.
3112Ain Al-Waddah22°59′28″57°17′34″56233.311.7n.a.
3220Le salaire de la peur23°37′39″57°06′55″32223.99.1n.a.
3321Rustaq23°23′36″57°24′41″37345.28.2n.a.
3422La poule au pot23°34′19″58°01′38″9435.811.3n.a.
35234 × 4 practice23°33′49″58°06′44″14026.310.4n.a.
3624Gabbro lité23°33′30″58°06′25″8021.011.4n.a.
3725L'ane blanc23°28′12″58°19′26″N.A.65.57.9n.a.
3826La grande Ligurie23°37′12″57°06′48″33731.311.3n.a.
3930Rencontre de la colombe22°54′22″58°25′35″66027.511.7n.a.
OM10_04SQafifah22°54′16″58°25′29″n.a.22.411.81685
OM10_04UQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.24.911.71778
OM09_W05LQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.23.811.61854
4031les lauriers roses22°53′44″58°23′41″68926.411.6n.a.
4132Graviere23°19′21″58°13′42″36731.011.5n.a.
OM10_01AMisbit23°17′27″58°13′55″n.a.31.611.21640
42OM09_W06ODima22°59′02″58°35′40″n.a.30.311.51905
#Site of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) and Paukert et al. (2012) Spring's nameLatitudeLongitudeAltitude (m)T (°C)pHEC (µS/cm)
242Nidab23°12′57″58°08′25″47333.211.5n.a.
253Yellowstone du pauvre22°49′10″57°48′48″47920.810.1n.a.
26
27
5
6
Little Grand Canon22°50′49″58°03′22″53328.3
32.2
11.8
11.7
n.a.
OM10_02LFalaij22°50′16″58°03′24″n.a.30.811.52230
OM10_03RFalaij22°50′33″58°03′29″n.a.27.911.61967
288Izki les 2 puits22°55′40″57°46′20″53023.47.8n.a.
2910Le partage du midi22°52′26″57°31′12″47222.411.7n.a.
3011Lac bleu de Bahla22°59′28″57°17′34″56226.310.8n.a.
3112Ain Al-Waddah22°59′28″57°17′34″56233.311.7n.a.
3220Le salaire de la peur23°37′39″57°06′55″32223.99.1n.a.
3321Rustaq23°23′36″57°24′41″37345.28.2n.a.
3422La poule au pot23°34′19″58°01′38″9435.811.3n.a.
35234 × 4 practice23°33′49″58°06′44″14026.310.4n.a.
3624Gabbro lité23°33′30″58°06′25″8021.011.4n.a.
3725L'ane blanc23°28′12″58°19′26″N.A.65.57.9n.a.
3826La grande Ligurie23°37′12″57°06′48″33731.311.3n.a.
3930Rencontre de la colombe22°54′22″58°25′35″66027.511.7n.a.
OM10_04SQafifah22°54′16″58°25′29″n.a.22.411.81685
OM10_04UQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.24.911.71778
OM09_W05LQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.23.811.61854
4031les lauriers roses22°53′44″58°23′41″68926.411.6n.a.
4132Graviere23°19′21″58°13′42″36731.011.5n.a.
OM10_01AMisbit23°17′27″58°13′55″n.a.31.611.21640
42OM09_W06ODima22°59′02″58°35′40″n.a.30.311.51905

Locations (#) are shown in figure 4.1 (Scharf et al. 2021, Chapter 4, this Memoir). Note, the springs #33 (Rustaq) and #37 (L'ane blanc) of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) are the same as springs #2 and #10 in Table A.1. Note the springs #26, 27 (Little Grand Canon), #39 (Rencontre de la colombe) and #41 (Graviere) of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) are the same sites of Paukert et al. (2012; Falaij, Qafifah and Misbit, respectively). EC, electrical conductivity; n.a., not available.

Appendix E (Thermal and hyperalkaline springs)

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Figures & Tables

Fig. A.1.

Geological map of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Note that the northeastern margin of the Saih Hatat Dome consists of HP rocks of the Arabian Margin, which have been thrust by some tens of kilometres. They are, thus, parautochthounous. The Public Authority for Mining in Oman kindly provided permission for publication of this map. All used maps are cited in the map itself and available at the Public Authority for Mining in Oman.

Fig. A.1.

Geological map of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Note that the northeastern margin of the Saih Hatat Dome consists of HP rocks of the Arabian Margin, which have been thrust by some tens of kilometres. They are, thus, parautochthounous. The Public Authority for Mining in Oman kindly provided permission for publication of this map. All used maps are cited in the map itself and available at the Public Authority for Mining in Oman.

Fig. A.2.

Correlation of the tectono-stratigraphic units and events at the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Subsurface formation names or their equivalents (if existing) are shown in brackets below the names. Main rock lithologies of each unit are indicated. A schematic sketch of the Hawasina Basin and subunits, including their width, is depicted in the upper part of the figure (modified after Béchennec et al. 1990). Palaeolatitude of Oman after Hughes Clarke (2006) and Droste (2014). Note that the size of Oman is exaggerated. Time scale after Gradstein et al. (2012). Note that the ages of the formations within the Nafun groups vary according to different authors as summarized in Al-Husseini (2014, his table 1). See text for details of the tectonic/glacial events and stress directions.

Fig. A.2.

Correlation of the tectono-stratigraphic units and events at the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes (northeastern Oman). Subsurface formation names or their equivalents (if existing) are shown in brackets below the names. Main rock lithologies of each unit are indicated. A schematic sketch of the Hawasina Basin and subunits, including their width, is depicted in the upper part of the figure (modified after Béchennec et al. 1990). Palaeolatitude of Oman after Hughes Clarke (2006) and Droste (2014). Note that the size of Oman is exaggerated. Time scale after Gradstein et al. (2012). Note that the ages of the formations within the Nafun groups vary according to different authors as summarized in Al-Husseini (2014, his table 1). See text for details of the tectonic/glacial events and stress directions.

Fig. A.3.

Comparison of the Permian Period between the ‘International Stratigraphic Chart’ and ‘Tethyan Time Scale’. Modified from Angiolini et al. (2016).

Fig. A.3.

Comparison of the Permian Period between the ‘International Stratigraphic Chart’ and ‘Tethyan Time Scale’. Modified from Angiolini et al. (2016).

Table A.1.

Thermal springs of the study area

#SpringProvinceWilayat (district)LatitudeLongitudeT (°C)EC (µS/cm)
1Al KhadhraS BatinahRustaq23.35903557.31112840892
2Al KasfahS BatinahRustaq23.39403357.41103045894
3SaighiS BatinahRustaq23.38766057.42960439812
4Al GhareedhS BatinahNakhl23.37522557.82682237738
5SakhnanS BatinahNakhl23.37392057.83450536709
6Al ThawarahS BatinahNakhl23.37791057.83668237687
7SubaykhahS BatinahW. Maawil23.50477057.919691511375
8SaleelS BatinahW. Maawil23.51215357.935619411237
9Hammam SharqiDakhliyahBidbid23.45410658.10263541759
10Hammam Ansab or Al-AliMuscatBawsher23.46945358.323011661420
11HeedMuscatBawsher23.52846458.382122411084
12Hammam GhalaMuscatBawsher23.52964258.383682421086
13Falaj BawsherMuscatBawsher23.53552158.398906361000
14Al GharMuscatBawsher23.53647158.39876037996
15SadMuscatBawsher23.54193858.40732037960
16Al HobeDakhliyahSemail23.32006057.94728637500
17HannahDakhliyahSemail23.29289457.91799438524
18Ghaiz Al Dhahia or Al-MahlDakhliyahSemail23.28876057.91908045652
19ManabikDakhliyahSemail23.28084757.91604445664
20QuryDakhliyahSemail23.21803957.87099235473
21Hammam SayjahDakhliyahSemail23.21451357.87162439539
22Hammam AfiahDakhliyahSemail23.10401757.823819n.a.n.a.
23Wadi Daiqa GorgeMuscatQuriyat23.07063058.774270n.a.n.a.
#SpringProvinceWilayat (district)LatitudeLongitudeT (°C)EC (µS/cm)
1Al KhadhraS BatinahRustaq23.35903557.31112840892
2Al KasfahS BatinahRustaq23.39403357.41103045894
3SaighiS BatinahRustaq23.38766057.42960439812
4Al GhareedhS BatinahNakhl23.37522557.82682237738
5SakhnanS BatinahNakhl23.37392057.83450536709
6Al ThawarahS BatinahNakhl23.37791057.83668237687
7SubaykhahS BatinahW. Maawil23.50477057.919691511375
8SaleelS BatinahW. Maawil23.51215357.935619411237
9Hammam SharqiDakhliyahBidbid23.45410658.10263541759
10Hammam Ansab or Al-AliMuscatBawsher23.46945358.323011661420
11HeedMuscatBawsher23.52846458.382122411084
12Hammam GhalaMuscatBawsher23.52964258.383682421086
13Falaj BawsherMuscatBawsher23.53552158.398906361000
14Al GharMuscatBawsher23.53647158.39876037996
15SadMuscatBawsher23.54193858.40732037960
16Al HobeDakhliyahSemail23.32006057.94728637500
17HannahDakhliyahSemail23.29289457.91799438524
18Ghaiz Al Dhahia or Al-MahlDakhliyahSemail23.28876057.91908045652
19ManabikDakhliyahSemail23.28084757.91604445664
20QuryDakhliyahSemail23.21803957.87099235473
21Hammam SayjahDakhliyahSemail23.21451357.87162439539
22Hammam AfiahDakhliyahSemail23.10401757.823819n.a.n.a.
23Wadi Daiqa GorgeMuscatQuriyat23.07063058.774270n.a.n.a.

Locations (#) are shown in figure 4.1 (Scharf et al. 2021, Chapter 4, this Memoir) Note, the springs #2 (Al Kasfah) and #10 (Hammam Ansab) are the same as springs #33 and #37 in Table A.2. Wadi Daiqa Gorge (#23) after Alan Heward pers. comm. (an older name for the gorge, stemming from the journey of Lees and Cox is the ‘Devils Gap’. That was the name attributed to it by sailors as it is a readily recognizable cleft on the skyline when looked at from a distance, Heward, pers. comm.). EC, electrical conductivity; n.a., not available.

Table A.2.

Hyperalkaline springs in the study area afterPaukert et al. (2012, highlighted in bold print) andChavagnac et al. (2013a, b )

#Site of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) and Paukert et al. (2012) Spring's nameLatitudeLongitudeAltitude (m)T (°C)pHEC (µS/cm)
242Nidab23°12′57″58°08′25″47333.211.5n.a.
253Yellowstone du pauvre22°49′10″57°48′48″47920.810.1n.a.
26
27
5
6
Little Grand Canon22°50′49″58°03′22″53328.3
32.2
11.8
11.7
n.a.
OM10_02LFalaij22°50′16″58°03′24″n.a.30.811.52230
OM10_03RFalaij22°50′33″58°03′29″n.a.27.911.61967
288Izki les 2 puits22°55′40″57°46′20″53023.47.8n.a.
2910Le partage du midi22°52′26″57°31′12″47222.411.7n.a.
3011Lac bleu de Bahla22°59′28″57°17′34″56226.310.8n.a.
3112Ain Al-Waddah22°59′28″57°17′34″56233.311.7n.a.
3220Le salaire de la peur23°37′39″57°06′55″32223.99.1n.a.
3321Rustaq23°23′36″57°24′41″37345.28.2n.a.
3422La poule au pot23°34′19″58°01′38″9435.811.3n.a.
35234 × 4 practice23°33′49″58°06′44″14026.310.4n.a.
3624Gabbro lité23°33′30″58°06′25″8021.011.4n.a.
3725L'ane blanc23°28′12″58°19′26″N.A.65.57.9n.a.
3826La grande Ligurie23°37′12″57°06′48″33731.311.3n.a.
3930Rencontre de la colombe22°54′22″58°25′35″66027.511.7n.a.
OM10_04SQafifah22°54′16″58°25′29″n.a.22.411.81685
OM10_04UQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.24.911.71778
OM09_W05LQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.23.811.61854
4031les lauriers roses22°53′44″58°23′41″68926.411.6n.a.
4132Graviere23°19′21″58°13′42″36731.011.5n.a.
OM10_01AMisbit23°17′27″58°13′55″n.a.31.611.21640
42OM09_W06ODima22°59′02″58°35′40″n.a.30.311.51905
#Site of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) and Paukert et al. (2012) Spring's nameLatitudeLongitudeAltitude (m)T (°C)pHEC (µS/cm)
242Nidab23°12′57″58°08′25″47333.211.5n.a.
253Yellowstone du pauvre22°49′10″57°48′48″47920.810.1n.a.
26
27
5
6
Little Grand Canon22°50′49″58°03′22″53328.3
32.2
11.8
11.7
n.a.
OM10_02LFalaij22°50′16″58°03′24″n.a.30.811.52230
OM10_03RFalaij22°50′33″58°03′29″n.a.27.911.61967
288Izki les 2 puits22°55′40″57°46′20″53023.47.8n.a.
2910Le partage du midi22°52′26″57°31′12″47222.411.7n.a.
3011Lac bleu de Bahla22°59′28″57°17′34″56226.310.8n.a.
3112Ain Al-Waddah22°59′28″57°17′34″56233.311.7n.a.
3220Le salaire de la peur23°37′39″57°06′55″32223.99.1n.a.
3321Rustaq23°23′36″57°24′41″37345.28.2n.a.
3422La poule au pot23°34′19″58°01′38″9435.811.3n.a.
35234 × 4 practice23°33′49″58°06′44″14026.310.4n.a.
3624Gabbro lité23°33′30″58°06′25″8021.011.4n.a.
3725L'ane blanc23°28′12″58°19′26″N.A.65.57.9n.a.
3826La grande Ligurie23°37′12″57°06′48″33731.311.3n.a.
3930Rencontre de la colombe22°54′22″58°25′35″66027.511.7n.a.
OM10_04SQafifah22°54′16″58°25′29″n.a.22.411.81685
OM10_04UQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.24.911.71778
OM09_W05LQafifah22°54′17″58°25′27″n.a.23.811.61854
4031les lauriers roses22°53′44″58°23′41″68926.411.6n.a.
4132Graviere23°19′21″58°13′42″36731.011.5n.a.
OM10_01AMisbit23°17′27″58°13′55″n.a.31.611.21640
42OM09_W06ODima22°59′02″58°35′40″n.a.30.311.51905

Locations (#) are shown in figure 4.1 (Scharf et al. 2021, Chapter 4, this Memoir). Note, the springs #33 (Rustaq) and #37 (L'ane blanc) of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) are the same as springs #2 and #10 in Table A.1. Note the springs #26, 27 (Little Grand Canon), #39 (Rencontre de la colombe) and #41 (Graviere) of Chavagnac et al. (2013a, b) are the same sites of Paukert et al. (2012; Falaij, Qafifah and Misbit, respectively). EC, electrical conductivity; n.a., not available.

Contents

GeoRef

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