Chapter 4 Large-scale structure of the study area
Published:March 01, 2021
Andreas Scharf, Frank Mattern, Mohammed Al-Wardi, Gianluca Frijia, Daniel Moraetis, Bernhard Pracejus, Wilfried Bauer, Ivan Callegari, 2021. "Chapter 4 Large-scale structure of the study area", The Geology and Tectonics of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat Domes, Oman Mountains, A. Scharf, F. Mattern, M. Al-Wardi, G. Frijia, D. Moraetis, B. Pracejus, W. Bauer, I. Callegari
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The Southeastern Oman Mountains are dominated by two major culminations: the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes, surrounded by allochthonous and/or neo-autochthonous rocks. In the cores of both domes, folded autochthonous and par-autochthonous pre-Permian metasedimentary rocks are exposed, subjacent to the ‘Hercynian’ Unconformity. Above the unconformity are Permo--Mesozoic shelfal sedimentary rocks, characterized by carbonates. These sedimentary rocks were openly folded. The open folds are large-scale elongate structures that define the shapes of both domes. The main elongation direction is NW--SE. Doming is syn- to post-obductional. Most margins of the domes are marked by major post-obductional, extensional faults. Reactivated basement faults along the eastern margin of the Jabal Akhdar Dome may be responsible for the straight NNE-striking eastern margin which is perpendicular to the main elongation direction of the domes. The deep structure of both domes is poorly known. However, the Moho depth below the centre of the Jabal Akhdar Dome is at 50 km. We present a geological map of both domes, depicting the main faults and folds, and schematic cross-sections, parallel and perpendicular to the Oman Mountains.
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The Geology and Tectonics of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat Domes, Oman Mountains
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The geology of the Oman Mountains, including the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes, is extraordinarily well-exposed and diverse, spanning a geological record of more than 800 Ma. The area is blessed with first-class outcrops and is well known in the geological community for its ophiolite. The Oman Mountains have much more to offer; including, Neoproterozoic diamictites (“Snowball Earth”), fossil-rich Permo-Mesozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks. The arid climate and deep incision of wadis allow for nearly complete rock exposure which can be investigated in all three dimensions. The diverse geology is also responsible for the breathtaking landscape. New roads and the nature of the friendly Omani people make fieldwork unforgettable.
This Memoir provides a thorough state-of-the-art overview of the geology and tectonics of the Southeastern Oman Mountains, and is accompanied by an over-sized geological map and a correlation chart.