Chapter 3 Thrusts, extensional faults and fold patterns of the major units
Published:March 01, 2021
Andreas Scharf, Frank Mattern, Mohammed Al-Wardi, Gianluca Frijia, Daniel Moraetis, Bernhard Pracejus, Wilfried Bauer, Ivan Callegari, 2021. "Chapter 3 Thrusts, extensional faults and fold patterns of the major units", The Geology and Tectonics of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat Domes, Oman Mountains, A. Scharf, F. Mattern, M. Al-Wardi, G. Frijia, D. Moraetis, B. Pracejus, W. Bauer, I. Callegari
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This chapter is concerned with the main faults and folds within the Southeastern Oman Mountains based on available literature. The main, best and most widely exposed thrusts are those related to the SW-directed late Cretaceous obduction of the allochthonous nappes onto the Arabian platform and margin. These thrusts are related to obduction of rocks, which had formed hundreds of kilometres offshore Oman. The thrusts were active from the Cenomanian to the Campanian. Obduction-related thrusts and folds are spectacularly exposed within the rocks of the Arabian platform in the eastern part of the Saih Hatat Dome, including large-scale recumbent cylindrical folds and sheath folds. At least six fold sets can be studied in the Southeastern Oman Mountains. At least two of them had formed prior to obduction and are exposed in the Pre-Permian formations of the Jabal Akhdar Dome. At least three fold sets formed in the course of obduction, while at least one fold set is postobductional in age. Besides the compressional structures, the Oman Mountains expose major post-obductional extensional faults, mostly at the margins of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes. The throw of these faults amounts to a few to several kilometres. Finally, this chapter provides an overview of the enigmatic Batinah Mélange which consists of slivers of Hawasina rocks, resting (unusually) structurally above the Semail Ophiolite.
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The Geology and Tectonics of the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat Domes, Oman Mountains
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The geology of the Oman Mountains, including the Jabal Akhdar and Saih Hatat domes, is extraordinarily well-exposed and diverse, spanning a geological record of more than 800 Ma. The area is blessed with first-class outcrops and is well known in the geological community for its ophiolite. The Oman Mountains have much more to offer; including, Neoproterozoic diamictites (“Snowball Earth”), fossil-rich Permo-Mesozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks. The arid climate and deep incision of wadis allow for nearly complete rock exposure which can be investigated in all three dimensions. The diverse geology is also responsible for the breathtaking landscape. New roads and the nature of the friendly Omani people make fieldwork unforgettable.
This Memoir provides a thorough state-of-the-art overview of the geology and tectonics of the Southeastern Oman Mountains, and is accompanied by an over-sized geological map and a correlation chart.