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Shallow to deeply penetrating bioturbation by organisms on carbonate shelves can alter the original depositional texture of carbonate sediments, rearrange and modify the primary porosity and permeability patterns, and effectively increase the overall flow properties in multiple intervals. To explore the impact of bioturbation on reservoir quality and its spatial and vertical patterns, this study examined sedimentologically, ichnologically, and geostatistically ubiquitous bioturbated strata throughout outcrops of the Middle Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Formation and Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation in central Saudi Arabia. Each lithofacies within the studied intervals had an ichnofabric index (ii) range from nonbioturbated (ii1) to beds completely homogenized...

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