Jean-François Moyen, 2020. "Granites and crustal heat budget", Post-Archean Granitic Rocks: Petrogenetic Processes and Tectonic Environments, V. Janoušek, B. Bonin, W. J. Collins, F. Farina, P. Bowden
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The origin of large I-type batholiths remains a disputed topic. One model states that I-type granites form by partial melting of older crustal lithologies (amphibolites or intermediate igneous rocks). In another view, granites are trapped rhyolitic liquids occurring at the end of fractionation trends defining a basalt–andesite–dacite–rhyolite series. This paper explores the thermal implications of both scenarios, using a heat balance model that abstracts the heat production and consumption during crustal melting. Heat is consumed by melting and by losses through the surface (conductive or advective, as a result of eruption). It is supplied as a basal conductive heat flux, as internal heat production or as advective heat carried by an influx of hot basalt into the crust. Using this abstract approach, it is possible to explore the role different parameters play in the balance of granites formed by differentiation of basalts or by crustal melting. Two end-member situations appear equally favourable to generating large volumes of granites: (1) short-lived environments dominated by high basaltic flux, where granites result mostly from basalt differentiation; and (2) long-lived systems with no or minimal basalt flux, with granites resulting chiefly from crustal melting.
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Post-Archean Granitic Rocks: Petrogenetic Processes and Tectonic Environments
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
Granites (sensu lato) represent the dominant rock-type forming the upper–middle continental crust but their origin remains a matter of long-standing controversy. The granites may result from fractionation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas, or partial melting of different crustal protoliths at contrasting P–T conditions, either water-fluxed or fluid-absent. Consequently, many different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the compositional variability of granites ranging from whole igneous suites down to mineral scale. This book presents an overview of the state of the art, and envisages future avenues towards a better understanding of granite petrogenesis. The volume focuses on the following topics:
compositional variability of granitic rocks generated in contrasting geodynamic settings during the Proterozoic to Phanerozoic Periods;
main permissible mechanisms producing subduction-related granites;
crustal anatexis of different protoliths and the role of water in granite petrogenesis; and
new theoretical and analytical tools available for modelling whole-rock geochemistry in order to decipher the sources and evolution of granitic suites.