Repeated S–I–A-type granite trilogy in the Lachlan Orogen and geochemical contrasts with A-type granites in Nigeria: implications for petrogenesis and tectonic discrimination
Published:April 21, 2020
William J. Collins, Hui-Qing Huang, Peter Bowden, A. I. S. Kemp, 2020. "Repeated S–I–A-type granite trilogy in the Lachlan Orogen and geochemical contrasts with A-type granites in Nigeria: implications for petrogenesis and tectonic discrimination", Post-Archean Granitic Rocks: Petrogenetic Processes and Tectonic Environments, V. Janoušek, B. Bonin, W. J. Collins, F. Farina, P. Bowden
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The classical S–I–A-type granites from the Lachlan Orogen, SE Australia, formed as a tectonic end-member of the accretionary orogenic spectrum, the Paleozoic Tasmanides. The sequence of S- to I- to A-type granite is repeated at least three times. All the granites are syn-extensional, formed in a dominantly back-arc setting behind a single, stepwise-retreating arc system between 530 and 230 Ma. Peralkaline granites are rare. Systematic S–I–A progressions indicate the progressive dilution of an old crustal component as magmatism evolved from arc (S-type) to proximal back-arc (I-type) to distal back-arc (A-type) magmatism. The alkaline and peralkaline A-type Younger granites of Nigeria were generally hotter and drier than the Lachlan A-type granites and were emplaced into an anhydrous Precambrian basement during intermittent intracontinental rifting. This geodynamic environment contrasts with the distal back-arc setting of the Lachlan A-type granites, where magmatism migrated rapidly across the orogen. Tectonic discrimination diagrams are inappropriate for the Lachlan granites, placing them in the wrong settings. Only the peralkaline Narraburra suite of the Lachlan Orogen fits the genuine ‘within-plate’ setting of the Nigerian A-type granites. Such discrimination diagrams require re-evaluation in the light of an improved modern understanding of tectonic processes, particularly the role of extensional tectonism and its geodynamic drivers.
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Post-Archean Granitic Rocks: Petrogenetic Processes and Tectonic Environments
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
Granites (sensu lato) represent the dominant rock-type forming the upper–middle continental crust but their origin remains a matter of long-standing controversy. The granites may result from fractionation of mantle-derived basaltic magmas, or partial melting of different crustal protoliths at contrasting P–T conditions, either water-fluxed or fluid-absent. Consequently, many different mechanisms have been proposed to explain the compositional variability of granites ranging from whole igneous suites down to mineral scale. This book presents an overview of the state of the art, and envisages future avenues towards a better understanding of granite petrogenesis. The volume focuses on the following topics:
compositional variability of granitic rocks generated in contrasting geodynamic settings during the Proterozoic to Phanerozoic Periods;
main permissible mechanisms producing subduction-related granites;
crustal anatexis of different protoliths and the role of water in granite petrogenesis; and
new theoretical and analytical tools available for modelling whole-rock geochemistry in order to decipher the sources and evolution of granitic suites.