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Faults commonly trap and impact the flow of fluids such as hydrocarbons and water over a range of timescales and therefore are of economic significance. During hydrocarbon exploration, analysis of the sealing capacity of faults can impact both the assessment of the probability of finding hydrocarbons and also the estimate of the likely resource range. During hydrocarbon field development, smaller faults can provide seals, baffles and/or conduits to flow. There are relatively simple, well-established workflows to carry out a fault seal analysis for siliciclastic rocks based primarily on clay content. There are, however, outstanding challenges related to other rock types, to calibrating fault seal models (with static and dynamic data) and to handling uncertainty. The variety of studies presented here demonstrate the types of data required and workflows followed in today's environment in order to understand the uncertainties, risks and upsides associated with fault-related fluid flow. These studies span all parts of the hydrocarbon value chain from exploration to production but are also of relevance for other industries such as radioactive waste and CO2 containment.

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