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The Timor Orogen comprises the island of Timor, a narrow offshore area to the north and a wider offshore fold-and-thrust belt to the south. This orogen formed by jamming and subsequent collision of the Banda Sea subduction system by the Australian Plate. The BandaSeis seismic survey has revealed excellent images of the deep-water fold-and-thrust belt. Seismic interpretation of the dataset demonstrated structural and tectonic features not previously described, including regional geological features on the Australian continental crust and two regional NE–SW sinistral strike-slip faults, and a prominent Middle Permian palaeogeographical high (Timor Plateau). Moreover, since the Middle–Late Triassic and Middle Jurassic, the two NE-trending strike-slip faults governed the formation of the West Timor and Cova-Lima sub-basins. The location along the Australian margin plays a dominant role in controlling the structural style and shaping of the Timor Orogen. Vertical loading and the southerly motion of the orogenic wedge are the main driving forces responsible for its building, illustrating a thin-skinned tectonic framework. Thrust faults nucleate in a forward-breaking sequence in the motion of thrust transport, with younger thrusts developing in front of older thrusts. Most of the collisional deformation has been classified into two styles: shallow thin-skinned and deep-seated deformation.

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