Published:April 14, 2020
The Ribblesdale fold belt, representing the Variscan inversion of the Bowland Basin, is a well-known geological feature of northern England. It represents a crustal strain discontinuity between the granite-underpinned basement highs of the northern Pennines and Lake District in the north, and the Central Lancashire High/southern Pennines, in the south. Recent seismic interpretation and mapping have demonstrated that the Ribblesdale fold belt continues offshore towards Anglesey via the Deemster Platform, beneath the Permo-Triassic sedimentary cover of the southern part of the East Irish Sea Basin. The Môn–Deemster fold–thrust belt (FTB) affects strata of Mississippian to late Pennsylvanian age. Variscan thrusts extend down into the pre-Carboniferous basement but apparently terminate at a low-angle detachment deeper in the crust, here correlated with the strongly sheared Penmynydd Zone exposed in the adjacent onshore. Up to 15% shortening is observed on seismic sections across the FTB offshore, but is greater in the strongly inverted onshore segment. Pre-Carboniferous thrusting post-dates formation of the Penmynydd Zone, and is probably of Acadian age, when basement structures such as the southward-vergent Carmel Head Thrust formed. Extensional reactivation of the Acadian structures in early Mississippian time defined the northern edge of the offshore Bowland Basin. The relatively late brittle structures of the Menai Strait fault system locally exhume the Penmynydd Zone and define the southern edge of the basin. The longer seismic records from the offshore provide insights to the tectonic evolution of the more poorly imaged FTB onshore.
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Fold and Thrust Belts: Structural Style, Evolution and Exploration
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
The outer parts of collision mountain belts are commonly represented by fold and thrust belts. Major advances in understanding these tectonic settings have arisen from regional studies that integrate diverse geological information in quests to find and produce hydrocarbons. Drilling has provided tests of subsurface forecasts, challenging interpretation strategies and structural models. This volume contains 19 papers that illustrate a diversity of methods and approaches together with case studies from Europe, the Middle East and the Asia-Pacific region. Collectively they show that appreciating diversity is key for developing better interpretations of complex geological structures in the subsurface – endeavours that span applications beyond the development of hydrocarbons.