Laurance Donnelly, 2020. "Chapter 11 Coal mining subsidence in the UK", Geological Hazards in the UK: Their Occurrence, Monitoring and Mitigation – Engineering Group Working Party Report, D. P. Giles, J. S. Griffiths
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One of the geohazards associated with coal mining is subsidence. Coal was originally extracted where it outcropped, then mining became progressively deeper via shallow workings including bell pits, which later developed into room-and-pillar workings. By the middle of the 1900s, coal was mined in larger open pits and underground by longwall mining methods. The mining of coal can often result in the subsidence of the ground surface. Generally, there are two main types of subsidence associated with coal mining. The first is the generation of crown holes caused by the collapse of mine entries and mine roadway intersections and the consolidation of shallow voids. The second is where longwall mining encourages the roof to fail to relieve the strains on the working face and this generates a subsidence trough. The ground movement migrates upwards and outwards from the seam being mined and ultimately causes the subsidence and deformation of the ground surface. Methods are available to predict mining subsidence so that existing or proposed structures and land developments may be safeguarded. Ground investigative methods and geotechnical engineering options are also available for sites that have been or may be adversely affected by coal mining subsidence.
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Geological Hazards in the UK: Their Occurrence, Monitoring and Mitigation – Engineering Group Working Party Report
The UK is perhaps unique globally in that it presents the full spectrum of geological time, stratigraphy and associated lithologies within its boundaries. With this wide range of geological assemblages comes a wide range of geological hazards, whether they be geophysical (earthquakes, effects of volcanic eruptions, tsunami, landslides), geotechnical (collapsible, compressible, liquefiable, shearing, swelling and shrinking soils), geochemical (dissolution, radon and methane gas hazards) or georesource related (coal, chalk and other mineral extraction). An awareness of these hazards and the risks that they pose is a key requirement of the engineering geologist.
The Geological Society considered that a Working Party Report would help to put the study and assessment of geohazards into the wider social context, helping the engineering geologist to better communicate the issues concerning geohazards in the UK to the client and the public. This volume sets out to define and explain these geohazards, to detail their detection, monitoring and management and to provide a basis for further research and understanding.