Chapter 4: TAXONOMY, BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, AND PHYLOGENY OF OLIGOCENE CATAPSYDRAX, GLOBOROTALOIDES, AND PROTENTELLOIDES
Published:January 31, 2018
Helen K. Coxall, Silvia Spezzaferri, 2018. "TAXONOMY, BIOSTRATIGRAPHY, AND PHYLOGENY OF OLIGOCENE CATAPSYDRAX, GLOBOROTALOIDES, AND PROTENTELLOIDES", Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Bridget S. Wade, Richard K. Olsson, Paul N. Pearson, Brian T. Huber, William A. Berggren
Download citation file:
The taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, and Protentelloides is reviewed. Catapsydrax and Globorotaloides are long-ranging genera with robust and dissolution-resistant tests. Both genera appeared in the early Eocene. Catapsydrax disappeared in the late Miocene while Globorotaloides has living representatives. Catapsydrax is ubiquitous in its distribution and highly variable in test size. Oligocene species of Globorotaloides are typically small (<250 μm) and usually rare in the tropics but may be common in high latitude and upwelling regions. After little evolutionary change in the Eocene and early Oligocene, Globorotaloides and Catapsydrax diversified at low latitudes in the mid- to late Oligocene resulting in the appearance of several new species and the quasi-clavate genus Protentelloides in the late Oligocene. So far Protentelloides spp. have only been found in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The following species are recognized as valid: Catapsydrax dissimilis (Cushman and Bermúdez), Catapsydrax indianus Spezzaferri and Pearson, Catapsydrax unicavus Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan, Globorotaloides atlanticus Spezzaferri and Coxall n. sp., Globorotaloides eovariabilis Huber and Pearson, Globorotaloides hexagonus (Natland), Globorotaloides quadrocameratus Olsson, Pearson and Huber, Globorotaloides stainforthi (Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan), Globorotaloides suteri Bolli, Globorotaloides testarugosus (Jenkins), Globorotaloides variabilis Bolli, Protentelloides dalhousiei Zhang and Scott, and Protentelloides primitivus Zhang and Scott.
Figures & Tables
Atlas of Oligocene Planktonic Foraminifera
The taxonomy, biostratigraphy, distribution, paleoecology and phylogenetic systematics of Oligocene planktonic foraminifera are treated in an illustrated atlas format. One hundred and twenty-eight species are recognized, including three species of Catapsydrax, eight species of Globorotaloides, two species of Protentelloides, twelve species of Paragloborotalia, two species of Parasubbotina, three species of Globigerina, eight species of Globigerinella, two species of Quiltyella Coxall and Spezzaferri n. gen., four species of Ciperoella Olsson and Hemleben n. gen., fifteen species of Globoturborotalita, seven species of Globigerinoides, seven species of Trilobatus, nine species of Subbotina, sixteen species of Dentoglobigerina, one species of Globoquadrina, two species of Turborotalita, three species of Acarinina, two species of Pseudohastigerina, two species of Turborotalia, two species of Dipsidripella, two species of Globigerinita, four species of Tenuitella, four species of Chiloguembelina, two species of Jenkinsina, two species of Cassigerinella, and four species of Streptochilus.
We name fourteen new species: Chiloguembelina adriatica Premec Fucek, Hernitz Kucenjak and Huber n. sp., Chiloguembelina andreae Premec Fucek, Hernitz Kucenjak and Huber n. sp., Dentoglobigerina eotripartita Pearson, Wade and Olsson n. sp., Globigerina archaeobulloides Hemleben and Olsson n. sp., Globigerinella roeglina Spezzaferri and Coxall n. sp., Globigerinoides neoparawoodi Spezzaferri n. sp., Globigerinoides joli Spezzaferri n. sp., Globoturborotalita eolabiacrassata Spezzaferri and Coxall n. sp., Globoturborotalita paracancellata Olsson and Hemleben n. sp., Globoturborotalita pseudopraebulloides Olsson and Hemleben n. sp., Globorotaloides atlanticus Spezzaferri and Coxall n. sp., Subbotina projecta Olsson, Pearson, and Wade n. sp., Streptochilus tasmanensis Smart and Thomas n. sp. and Trilobatus altospiralis Spezzaferri n. sp. The following new genera are named: Ciperoella Olsson and Hemleben n. gen. and Quiltyella Coxall and Spezzaferri, n. gen.
Over 2000 scanning electron micrographs images, including the type specimens of more than 60 species are illustrated for the first time, providing fresh comprehension of the shell architecture and wall texture, particularly for species that were poorly illustrated when first described. The biostratigraphic occurrences and phylogenetic relationships of all species of Oligocene planktonic foraminifera are reviewed. Analysis of wall textures, based on well-preserved material (much of which is illustrated for the first time) provides the basis for the higher taxonomy. Accordingly, Oligocene normal perforate planktonic foraminifera are divided into the Families Globigerinidae, Truncorotaloididae, and Globanomalinidae. Oligocene microperforate species, are placed in the Families Globigerinitidae, Chiloguembelinidae, Guembelitriidae, and Cassigerinellidae.