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ABSTRACT

The taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Oligocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, and Protentelloides is reviewed. Catapsydrax and Globorotaloides are long-ranging genera with robust and dissolution-resistant tests. Both genera appeared in the early Eocene. Catapsydrax disappeared in the late Miocene while Globorotaloides has living representatives. Catapsydrax is ubiquitous in its distribution and highly variable in test size. Oligocene species of Globorotaloides are typically small (<250 μm) and usually rare in the tropics but may be common in high latitude and upwelling regions. After little evolutionary change in the Eocene and early Oligocene, Globorotaloides and Catapsydrax diversified at low latitudes in the mid- to late Oligocene resulting in the appearance of several new species and the quasi-clavate genus Protentelloides in the late Oligocene. So far Protentelloides spp. have only been found in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean. The following species are recognized as valid: Catapsydrax dissimilis (Cushman and Bermúdez), Catapsydrax indianus Spezzaferri and Pearson, Catapsydrax unicavus Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan, Globorotaloides atlanticus Spezzaferri and Coxall n. sp., Globorotaloides eovariabilis Huber and Pearson, Globorotaloides hexagonus (Natland), Globorotaloides quadrocameratus Olsson, Pearson and Huber, Globorotaloides stainforthi (Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan), Globorotaloides suteri Bolli, Globorotaloides testarugosus (Jenkins), Globorotaloides variabilis Bolli, Protentelloides dalhousiei Zhang and Scott, and Protentelloides primitivus Zhang and Scott.

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