Chapter 2: TROPICAL TO SUBTROPICAL PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERAL ZONATION OF THE EOCENE AND OLIGOCENE
Published:August 31, 2006
William A. Berggren, Paul N. Pearson, 2006. "TROPICAL TO SUBTROPICAL PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERAL ZONATION OF THE EOCENE AND OLIGOCENE", Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Paul N. Pearson, Richard K. Olsson, Brian T. Huber, Christoph Hemleben, William A. Berggren
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New biostratigraphic investigations on deep sea cores and outcrop sections have revealed several shortcomings in currently used (sub)tropical Eocene planktonic foraminiferal zonal schemes in the form of 1) modified taxonomic concepts, 2) modified/ different ranges of taxa, and 3) improved calibrations with magnetostratigraphy. This new information has provided us with an opportunity of making some necessary improvements to extant Eocene biostratigraphic schemes in the form of a revised zonation (Berggren and Pearson, 2005). At the same time we provide a numerical notation for Eocene and Oligocene zones using the prefix ‘E’ (for Eocene) and ‘O’ (for Oligocene) to achieve consistency with recent short-hand notation for other Cenozoic zones (Paleocene [‘P’], Miocene [‘M’], Pliocene [PL] and Pleistocene [PT]). The new Eocene (and a modified 6-fold Oligocene) zonation is presented here as the biostratigraphic template for the taxonomic and phylogenetic data presented in this Atlas.
Figures & Tables
Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera
The biostratigraphy, taxonomy and phylogenetic systematics of Eocene planktonic foraminifera are treated in an illustrated atlas format. Scanning electron micrographs of the type specimens of 114 species are illustrated for the first time, providing new insight to the shell architecture and wall texture, particularly for species that were poorly illustrated when first described. The phylogenetic relationships of all species of Eocene planktonic foraminifera are reviewed. Analysis of wall textures, based on well-preserved material (much of which is illustrated for the first time) provides the basis for the higher taxonomy. Accordingly, Eocene normal perforate planktonic foraminifera are divided into the Families Globigerinidae, Hantkeninidae, Truncorotaloididae, Globoquadrinidae and Hedbergellidae. Eocene microperforate species, which are less well known, are placed in the Families Guembelitriidae, Chiloguembelinidae, Hetero-helicidae, and Cassigerinellidae.
The biostratigraphic occurrences of all species of Eocene planktonic foraminifera are reviewed. Recently proposed modifications to the standard (sub)tropical and Antarctic zonations (the so-called “E-zones” of Berggren and Pearson, 2005 and “AP-zones” of Huber and Quillévéré, 2005) are followed in this atlas.
One hundred and sixty-eight species of Eocene planktonic foraminifera are recognized, including 5 species of Catapsydrax, 2 species of Globorotaloides, 1 species of Guembelitrioides, 2 species of Paragloborotalia, 6 species of Parasubbotina, 1 species of Pseudoglobigerinella Olsson and Pearson n. gen., 1 species of Globigerina, 5 species of Globoturborotalita, 15 species of Subbotina, 2 species of Turborotalita, 11 species of Globigerinatheka, 1 species of Orbulinoides, 5 species of Clavigerinella, 1 species of Cribrohantkenina, 10 species of Hantkenina, 28 species of Acarinina, 4 species of Morozovelloides Pearson and Berggren n. gen., 16 species of Morozovella, 1 species of Astrorotalia, 4 species of Igorina, 2 species of Planorotalites, 1 species questionably assigned to Praemurica, 3 species of Dentoglobigerina, 5 species of Globanomalina, 1 species of Planoglobanomalina Olsson and Hemleben n. gen., 4 species of Pseudohastigerina, 9 species of Turborotalia, 6 species of Chiloguembelina, 1 species of Streptochilus, 4 species of Tenuitella, 2 species of Cassigerinella, 1 species of Cassigerinelloita, 2 species of Jenkinsina, 4 species of Zeauvigerina, and 2 species of Dipsidripella.
The following taxa are named for the first time; the genera Pseudoglobigerinella (Olsson and Pearson n. gen.; type species Globigerina wilsoni bolivariana Petters), Morozovelloides (Pearson and Berggren n. gen.; type species Globorotalia lehneri Cushman and Jarvis), Planoglobanomalina (Olsson and Hemleben n. gen.; type species Planoglobanomalina pseudoalgeriana Olsson and Hemleben n. sp.); and the species Parasubbotina pseudowilsoni Olsson and Pearson n. sp., Paragloborotalia griffinoides Olsson and Pearson n. sp., Globorotaloides eovariablis Huber and Pearson n. sp., Globorotaloides quadrocameratus Olsson, Pearson and Huber n. sp., Globoturborotalita bassriverensis Olsson and Hemleben n. sp., Turborotalita praequinqueloba Olsson and Hemleben n. sp., Hantkenina singanoae Pearson and Coxall n. sp., Acarinina mcgowrani Wade and Pearson n. sp., Acarinina pseudosubsphaerica Berggren and Pearson n. sp., and Planoglobanomalina pseudoalgeriana Olsson and Hemleben n. sp.