Chapter 22: Upper and uppermost thrust sheets in the Caledonide orogen, Sweden: outboard oceanic and exotic continental terranes
Published:January 03, 2020
Michael B. Stephens, 2020. "Upper and uppermost thrust sheets in the Caledonide orogen, Sweden: outboard oceanic and exotic continental terranes", Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources, M. B. Stephens, J. Bergman Weihed
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Three separate stacks of thrust sheets (Köli Nappe Complex) constitute the Upper Allochthon in the Caledonide orogen, Sweden. This thrust complex is dominated by late Cambrian–Ordovician successions deposited in subduction-related, marginal oceanic basins. Magmatic activity at c. 488 Ma (Lower Köli) and c. 492–476 Ma (Middle Köli) is linked to rifted volcanic arcs and Zn–Cu–Fe–(Pb–Au–Ag) sulphide mineralization; serpentinite bodies with talc deposits are also conspicuous. Renewed magmatic activity, both plutonic (Upper and Middle Köli) and mafic volcanic (Middle and Lower Köli), occurred at c. 440–434 Ma during crustal extension. Late Ordovician shallow-marine sedimentation, deepening upwards into an early Silurian succession also prevailed (Lower Köli). Silurian (c. 430 Ma and later) folding, eastwards-vergent thrusting and greenschist or lower amphibolite facies metamorphism preceded upright, orogen-parallel and orogen-transverse open folding. Juxtaposition of an arc-related terrane to an ancient continental margin, comprising slices of gneiss and marble, in the Middle Köli occurred prior to c. 437 Ma and the eastwards-vergent thrusting; remnants of an Ordovician amphibolite facies tectonothermal event are also preserved in the Upper Köli. The tectonic roof to the Köli complex contains amphibolite facies mica schist, gneiss and marble, derived from the Laurentian continental margin, and a major gabbroic pluton (Rödingsfjället Nappe Complex, Uppermost Allochthon).
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.