Part VII: 0.5–0.4 Ga (Caledonian) orogeny, northwestern Sweden
Published:January 03, 2020
The Scandian mountains in northwestern Sweden are dominated by the eastern part of the Scandinavian Caledonides, an orogen that terminated during the middle Paleozoic with Himalayan-style collision of the ancient continents of Baltica and Laurentia. In this foreland region, far-transported higher allochthons from an exotic continental margin (Rödingsfjället Nappe Complex) and underlying mostly oceanic-arc basin character (Köli Nappe Complex) were emplaced at least 700 km onto the Baltoscandian margin of Baltica. The thrust sheets below the Iapetus Ocean terranes were derived from the transition zone to Baltica (Seve Nappe Complex), comprising mainly siliciclastic metasedimentary rocks, hosting abundant metamorphosed c. 600 Ma mafic intrusions. They preserve evidence of subduction (eclogites, garnet peridotites and microdiamonds in host paragneisses), starting in the late Cambrian; exhumation continued through the Ordovician. Underlying allochthons derived from the outer margin of Baltica are less-metamorphosed Neoproterozoic sandstone-dominated successions, also intruded by Ediacaran dolerite dykes (Särv Nappes); they are located tectonically above similar-aged metasandstone and basement slices, devoid of dykes (Offerdal and Tännäs Augen Gneiss nappes and equivalents). Lowermost allochthons (Jämtlandian Nappes and equivalents), from the inner Baltoscandian margin, provide evidence of Cryogenian rifting, Ediacaran–Cambrian drifting and platformal sedimentation, followed by foreland basin development in the Ordovician and Silurian.
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.