Chapter 12: Dolerites (1.27–1.25 Ga) and alkaline ultrabasic dykes (c. 1.14 Ga) related to intracratonic rifting
Published:January 03, 2020
Magnus Ripa, Michael B. Stephens, 2020. "Dolerites (1.27–1.25 Ga) and alkaline ultrabasic dykes (c. 1.14 Ga) related to intracratonic rifting", Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources, M. B. Stephens, J. Bergman Weihed
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Doleritic sills, lopoliths and dykes were emplaced into the Paleoproterozoic craton in central Sweden at 1271–1264, 1259–1256 and c. 1247 Ma, a complex temporal zonation occurring in a WSW–ENE direction. The dolerites are subalkaline to alkaline and show predominantly gabbroic, with a trend towards monzogabbroic and quartz monzodioritic, compositions. Positive ɛNd and ɛHf values suggest a significant depleted mantle component in the source volume of the parental magmas. Dyke orientations indicate extension, at least locally, in a northwesterly direction, consistent with a magma flow direction determined using the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility values. Intracratonic rifting linked to the break-up of the supercontinent Columbia, back-arc extension above a subduction boundary in a westwards-retreating mode or a mantle plume tail above a continental hotspot have all been proposed for the tectonic setting. Renewed intracratonic rifting at c. 1.14 Ga in the coastal area in northeasternmost Sweden resulted in the emplacement of alkaline ultrabasic dykes, including carbonatites (beforsites), silico-carbonatites and lamprophyres, in a north–south direction along an older shear belt. The broader tectonic setting of this extensional event is not known.
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.