Chapter 8: Outboard-migrating accretionary orogeny at 1.9–1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian) along a margin to the continent Fennoscandia
Published:January 03, 2020
Michael B. Stephens, 2020. "Outboard-migrating accretionary orogeny at 1.9–1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian) along a margin to the continent Fennoscandia", Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources, M. B. Stephens, J. Bergman Weihed
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An intimate lithostratigraphic and lithodemic connection between syn-orogenic rock masses inside the different lithotectonic units of the 2.0–1.8 Ga (Svecokarelian) orogen, Sweden, is proposed. A repetitive cyclic tectonic evolution occurred during the time period c. 1.91–1.75 Ga, each cycle lasting about 50–55 million years. Volcanic rocks (c. 1.91–1.88 Ga) belonging to the earliest cycle are host to most of the base metal sulphide and Fe oxide deposits inside the orogen. Preservation of relict trails of continental magmatic arcs and intra-arc basins is inferred, with differences in the depth of basin deposition controlling, for example, contrasting types of base metal sulphide deposits along different trails. The segmented geometry of these continental magmatic arcs and intra-arc basins is related to strike-slip movement along ductile shear zones during transpressive events around and after 1.88 Ga; late orogenic folding also disturbed their orientation on a regional scale. A linear northwesterly orogenic trend is suggested prior to this structural overprint, the strike-slip movement being mainly parallel to the orogen. A solely accretionary orogenic model along an active margin to the continent Fennoscandia, without any trace of a terminal continent–continent collision, is preferred. Alternating retreating and advancing subduction modes that migrated progressively outboard and southwestwards in time account for the tectonic cycles.
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.