Chapter 4: Paleoproterozoic (2.0–1.8 Ga) syn-orogenic sedimentation, magmatism and mineralization in the Bothnia–Skellefteå lithotectonic unit, Svecokarelian orogen
Published:January 03, 2020
Pietari Skyttä, Pär Weihed, Karin Högdahl, Stefan Bergman, Michael B. Stephens, 2020. "Paleoproterozoic (2.0–1.8 Ga) syn-orogenic sedimentation, magmatism and mineralization in the Bothnia–Skellefteå lithotectonic unit, Svecokarelian orogen", Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources, M. B. Stephens, J. Bergman Weihed
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The Bothnia–Skellefteå lithotectonic unit is dominated by turbiditic wacke and argillite (Bothnian basin), deposited at 1.96 (or older)–1.86 Ga, metamorphosed generally under high-grade conditions and intruded by successive plutonic suites at 1.95–1.93, 1.90–1.88, 1.87–1.85 and 1.81–1.76 Ga. In the northern part, low-grade and low-strain, 1.90–1.86 Ga predominantly magmatic rocks (the Skellefte–Arvidsjaur magmatic province) are enclosed by the basinal components. Subduction-related processes in intra-arc basin and magmatic arc settings, respectively, are inferred. Changes in the metamorphic grade and the relative timing of deformation and structural style across the magmatic province are linked to major shear zones trending roughly north–south and, close to the southern margin, WNW–ESE. Zones trending WNW–ESE and ENE–WSW dominate southwards. Slip along the north–south zones in an extensional setting initiated synchronously with magmatic activity at 1.90–1.88 Ga. Tectonic inversion steered by accretion to a craton to the east, involving crustal shortening, ductile strain and crustal melting, occurred at 1.88–1.85 Ga. Deformation along shear zones under lower-grade conditions continued at c. 1.8 Ga. Felsic volcanic rocks (1.90–1.88 Ga) host exhalative and replacement-type volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (the metallogenic Skellefte district). Other deposits include orogenic Au, particularly along the ‘gold line’ SW of this district, porphyry Cu–Au–Mo, and magmatic Ni–Cu along the ‘nickel line’ SE of the ‘gold line’.
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.