Chapter 3: Archean (>2.6 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5–1.8 Ga), pre- and syn-orogenic magmatism, sedimentation and mineralization in the Norrbotten and Överkalix lithotectonic units, Svecokarelian orogen
Published:January 03, 2020
Stefan Bergman, Pär Weihed, 2020. "Archean (>2.6 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.5–1.8 Ga), pre- and syn-orogenic magmatism, sedimentation and mineralization in the Norrbotten and Överkalix lithotectonic units, Svecokarelian orogen", Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources, M. B. Stephens, J. Bergman Weihed
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Two lithotectonic units (the Norrbotten and Överkalix units) occur inside the Paleoproterozoic (2.0–1.8 Ga) Svecokarelian orogen in northernmost Sweden. Archean (2.8–2.6 Ga and possibly older) basement, affected by a relict Neoarchean tectonometamorphic event, and early Paleoproterozoic (2.5–2.0 Ga) cover rocks constitute the pre-orogenic components in the orogen that are unique in Sweden. Siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, predominantly felsic volcanic rocks, and both spatially and temporally linked intrusive rock suites, deposited and emplaced at 1.9–1.8 Ga, form the syn-orogenic component. These magmatic suites evolved from magnesian and calc-alkaline to alkali–calcic compositions to ferroan and alkali–calcic varieties in a subduction-related tectonic setting. Apatite–Fe oxide, including the world's two largest underground Fe ore mines (Kiruna and Malmberget), skarn-related Fe oxide, base metal sulphide, and epigenetic Cu–Au and Au deposits occur in the Norrbotten lithotectonic unit. Low- to medium-pressure and variable temperature metamorphic conditions and polyphase Svecokarelian ductile deformation prevailed. The general northwesterly or north-northeasterly structural grain is controlled by ductile shear zones. The Paleotectonic evolution after the Neoarchean involved three stages: (1) intracratonic rifting prior to 2.0 Ga; (2) tectonic juxtaposition of the lithotectonic units during crustal shortening prior to 1.89 Ga; and (3) accretionary tectonic evolution along an active continental margin at 1.9–1.8 Ga.
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.