Published:January 03, 2020
The solid rock geology of Sweden comprises three principal components: (1) Proterozoic and (locally) Archean rocks belonging to the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield; (2) Phanerozoic and (locally) Neoproterozoic sedimentary cover rocks deposited on top of this ancient crust; and (3) the early to mid-Paleozoic (0.5–0.4 Ga) Caledonide orogen. Earlier compilations have applied different principles for the subdivision of the geology in the Fennoscandian Shield and the Caledonide orogen. A uniform lithotectonic framework has been developed here. Crustal segments affected by orogenesis have been identified and their ages determined by the youngest tectonothermal event. Four ancient mountain belts and six orogenies are preserved. Solid rocks outside the orogens have been assigned to different magmatic complexes or sedimentary successions based on their time of formation and tectonic affiliation. This approach allows relicts of older mountain-building activity to be preserved inside a younger orogen – for example, the effects of the Archean (2.8–2.6 Ga) orogeny inside the 2.0–1.8 Ga Svecokarelian orogen and Paleo–Mesoproterozoic (1.7–1.5 and 1.5–1.4 Ga) mountain-building processes inside the 1.1–0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogen. Sweden's five largest mineral districts are addressed in the context of this new lithotectonic framework, which forms the architecture to the contents of the chapters in this Memoir.
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Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources
The solid rock mass of Sweden forms a natural field laboratory revealing insight into the westward growth and reworking of one of the planet's ancient continental nuclei. Three major geological units are exposed in different parts of the country: the western part of the Fennoscandian Shield, mainly sedimentary rocks deposited on this crystalline rock mass and the Caledonide orogen. This volume synthesizes the tectonic evolution of Sweden over more than 2500 million years from the Neoarchean to the Neogene. Following an introduction describing the lithotectonic framework of the country and the organization of the volume, the tectonic evolution is addressed essentially chronologically. Different phases of intracratonic rifting, accretionary orogeny, continent–continent collisional orogeny and platformal sedimentation are identified. Sweden is one of Europe's major suppliers of metals, and the country's mineral resources are also presented in the context of the lithotectonic framework. Sweden: Lithotectonic Framework, Tectonic Evolution and Mineral Resources has been designed to interest a professional geoscientific audience and advanced students of Earth Sciences.