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Characterizing fractures is essential in effectively developing carbonate reservoirs, especially when they have high porosity but very low matrix permeability. It is important to know and locate fractured areas and define the intensity and orientation of open fractures because they provide the main conduits of fluid flow. Open fractures cause anisotropy in reservoir rocks that may be reflected as a measurable anomaly in azimuthal variation of amplitude or amplitude-versus-offset (AVO), in velocity or travel-time, and in shear-wave splitting. All these anomalies, usually referred to as azimuthal anisotropy, can be extracted from multi-component, wide-azimuth seismic data and after integration with...

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