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ABSTRACT

The Mississippian-age limestone of the North American midcontinent (NAMC) is a valuable unconventional, very fine-grained, low-porosity and low-permeability mixed carbonate–siliciclastic reservoir in Oklahoma and Kansas. Although over 14,000 vertical wells have been producing oil and gas from these Mississippian-age reservoirs for over 50 years, recent horizontal activity has illustrated how crucial it is to understand the petrophysical and depositional characteristics associated with producing intervals. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic architecture determined for five cores in three areas of the basin have been integrated with key petrophysical data (porosity and permeability), a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pore architecture, and the acoustic response from representative samples from each core to better understand the distribution of reservoir facies in this unconventional carbonate reservoir. These data can provide insight into how to enhance the predictability of key reservoir intervals within the study area.

The very fine-grained, unconventional reservoir facies within the sample set have a horizontal porosity that ranges from 0.1% to 12.5% (average 2.5%), although porosity values may be as high as 20% locally. Correlative permeability ranges from 0.0001 to 3.4 mD (average 0.05 mD). Horizontal porosity from coarse-grained facies in the “conventional” reservoir facies range from 13% to 45% (average 31%) porosity with correlative permeability ranging from 5.92 to 163 mD (average 43 mD). The variability within the facies provides insight to key characteristics and measurements that allow for enhanced predictability of key petrophysical features (porosity and permeability). The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pore architecture, completed using an environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) and digital image analysis, shows the pores are mostly oblong to oval shaped, interparticle, and intercrystalline to vuggy, meso- (4 mm to 62.5 µm) to nanopore (1 µm to 1 nm) size, while pore throat measurements are consistently in the nanopore range. Acoustic response measurements are inversely related to porosity, which is consistent with published case studies using conventional carbonates. A notable difference in the acoustic response from the data set, is a significant shift in the velocity–porosity relationship that is likely a result of the complex micro- to nanopore architecture and postdepositional diagenesis.

Facies preserved in the five cores range from very fine-grained carbonaceous mudstone and wackestones deposited in an outer-ramp environment to moderate to highly bioturbated wackestone and grainstones deposited in middle-ramp environments, and near-shore wackestone to packstones capped by a series of peritidal deposits. All facies exhibit significant overprinting by diagenesis, including weathering and karst development due to subaerial exposure. Each core shows a shallowing, or shoaling, upward succession of facies, which is in agreement with published eustatic sea-level during this period. The sequence stratigraphic architecture determined from detailed facies analysis reveals a similar hierarchy preserved throughout the basin, which is the foundation to predicting key reservoir intervals. The high-resolution sequence stratigraphic architecture is similarly, the foundation to predict intervals with high porosity and high permeability. The highest order sequences (2nd or 3rd order) have a high level of correlation to conventional wire line logs, specifically the gamma-ray log. Augmenting this data with the acoustic response, and qualitative characterization of the macro- to nanoscale pore architecture, provides an example of how integrated studies can enhance predictability of key reservoir facies and producing intervals within unconventional carbonate reservoirs.

INTRODUCTION

Unconventional, low-porosity, and low-permeability resources have steadily taken a prominent place in oil and gas exploration within the last decade. As oil and gas exploration continues to advance technologically to more accurately identify key hydrocarbon-rich zones and develop methods for more efficient extraction, the need to better understand these low-porosity and low-permeability reservoirs remains a fundamental necessity.

The “Mississippi lime” play, which extends throughout north–central Oklahoma and southern Kansas, has seen oil and gas production from vertical wells for over 50 years. However, the Mississippi lime has undergone a revival in production through advances in horizontal drilling technology. With this renewed interest, it is increasingly important to understand the complexity of this reservoir system to target the highest producing intervals. To accomplish this, it is necessary to understand fundamental depositional and petrophysical characteristics at the meter-scale to the larger reservoir-scale units.

The goal of this study is to provide insight to the range of depositional environments found within the study area and to identify possible methods and tools that aid in understanding reservoir conditions and exploration potential when related to a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis. With several other ongoing research projects related to the Mississippian limestone reservoir in this volume, this study provides one component of a very complicated depositional and diagenetic history found in the Oklahoma and Kansas area.

The primary objectives of the study are:

  1. To define the high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework through detailed facies analysis from core and thin section data.

  2. To integrate the sequence stratigraphic hierarchy with wireline log signatures and conventional, petrophysical laboratory data (porosity, air permeability, and Klinkenberg permeability) to identify trends that may be applicable to other parts of the basin, as well as other similar unconventional carbonate–siliciclastic reservoir systems.

  3. To understand how the acoustic response relates to porosity in the very fine-grained, low-porosity, and low-permeability facies and how this compares to relationships and correlations in the medium- to coarse-grained facies with predominantly macroporosity and relatively high porosity and permeability.

Identifying relationships between common well log data, traditional laboratory measured petrophysical data and a detailed sequence stratigraphic framework increases the predictability of reservoir-quality units in the subsurface, allows for an enhanced understanding of reservoir and seal geometries and distributions, and ultimately leads to enhanced hydrocarbon production. The results from this study should be applicable to other areas within the Mississippian limestone play and as an analog for other carbonate–siliciclastic systems deposited in similar environmental conditions on an attached carbonate ramp or attached, distally steepened carbonate ramp, adjacent to an actively subsiding foreland basin. Understanding how the acoustic response relates to porosity within the basin and how the response compares to other published trends for conventional carbonates and conventional siliciclastics is a supplemental characteristic that can be integrated to provide further enhanced predictability of porosity within the basin.

Geologic Background

During the Mississippian period, present-day southern North America was covered by a shallow, tropical, epeiric sea that established a broad carbonate depositional system (Gutschick and Sandberg, 1983). Paleogeographic reconstruction indicates the present day North American midcontinent (NAMC) area straddled the paleoequator, which placed most of North America within 5°−30° north or south of the equator (Lane and De Keyser, 1980; Gutschick and Sandberg, 1983; Scotese et al., 1999).

It is generally agreed that during the Late Mississippian or Early Pennsylvanian the Nemaha uplift or Nemaha Ridge, a north–south trending structural high extending from Kansas into Oklahoma, was active (Gay, 1999, 2003). Faulting associated with the Nemaha uplift is believed to have affected Mississippian deposition creating a potentially significant sediment source, additional accommodation space, and variable bathymetric geometry. This localized tectonism is also likely a primary cause of some of the complex lateral and vertical distribution observed in Mississippian age reservoir units due to localized changes in depositional activity as a result of nearby tectonic movements (Meckel et al., 1992; Gay, 1999, 2003).

The Mississippian period represents an overall 2nd-order sequence characterized by numerous (20–30) 3rd-order eustatic sea level fluctuations as illustrated in Figure 1 (Vail et al., 1977; Haq and Schutter, 2008). Higher order depositional cyclicity correlative to 4th- or 5th-order packages are likely preserved in several locations within the basin, but many of these higher frequency packages are likely to have been influenced by localized allocyclic and autocyclic processes from localized depositional and paleogeographic conditions (Ross and Ross, 1988; Cecil, 2003; Haq and Schutter, 2008). The identification of different depositional order cycles can be used for cross-correlation within the basin on a small scale to identify major flow units, and on a larger scale when information about the basin history and development is needed. Although additional data that allows for specific dating of each depositional sequence identified would be helpful, a relative correlation can still be used to provide useful reservoir data provided the proper context is applied.

Figure 1.

Eustatic sea level curves applicable to the early Carboniferous Period: Mississippian Epoch. On-lap curves and sea-level curves provide insight into the rate of sea-level change and estimated change in water depth throughout the Mississippian. Absolute changes to water depth were basin specific and would have exaggerated or muted the identified eustatic changes based on local changes to basin geometry and rate of subsidence or adjacent uplift. Figure modified from Haq and Schutter (2008).

Figure 1.

Eustatic sea level curves applicable to the early Carboniferous Period: Mississippian Epoch. On-lap curves and sea-level curves provide insight into the rate of sea-level change and estimated change in water depth throughout the Mississippian. Absolute changes to water depth were basin specific and would have exaggerated or muted the identified eustatic changes based on local changes to basin geometry and rate of subsidence or adjacent uplift. Figure modified from Haq and Schutter (2008).

Study area and depositional environments

The NAMC Mississippian-age carbonate system has several unique depositional environments that, coupled with diagenetic and structural alterations, have resulted in lithologies that are credited as the primary reservoir faces. Depositional environments varied from high-energy near-shore beaches, sand shoals and tidal complexes to aerially extensive, low-energy, sheltered middle-ramp and outer-ramp carbonate-mud deposition with localized bioherms, reefs, and muddy lagoons (Curtis and Champlin, 1959). The regional tectonic regime resulted in continuous changes to both regional and local basin geometries and, along with the realization of the effect of multiple eustatic sea-level oscillations, continue to be studied from outcrop and subsurface data sets to better understand and predict reservoir and facies distributions in the subsurface throughout the NAMC area (Watney et al., 2001; Mazullo et al., 2009, 2011; Mazullo, 2011; Boardman et al., 2013a,b; Grammer et al., 2013; Morris et al., 2013; LeBlanc and Grammer, 2014; Price, 2014).

The data set for this study includes five cores that represent three different depositional settings within the basin. The cores are from Reno County, Kansas, Logan County, Oklahoma, Payne County, Oklahoma, and Osage County, Oklahoma. Within these areas, deposition is assumed to have occurred in a relatively shallow, tropical to subtropical epeiric sea environment located 20°–30° south of the paleoequator (Curtis and Champlin, 1959; Gutschick and Sandberg, 1983; Witzke, 1990). It is currently accepted that deposition occurred on a low-declivity (<1°) ramp to a distally steepened ramp environment, with strike trending roughly east–west adjacent to actively subsiding foreland basins (Mazzullo et al., 2011). Current research indicates the ramp system was regionally extensive and deposited carbonate and siliciclastic sediment across hundreds of square kilometers in portions of Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, and Illinois (Lane, 1978; Gutschick and Sandberg, 1983; LeBlanc and Grammer, 2014; Bertalott, 2014; Price, 2014; Childress, 2015). Proximal, shallow-water conditions were present to the north, and deeper water with sediment starved conditions existed to the south (Lane and De Keyser, 1980; Gutschick and Sandberg, 1983). The entire ramp system was bounded to the north and northwest by the Transcontinental arch, to the east by the Ozark uplift, and to the south by the deep water settings of the ancestral Anadarko and Arkoma basins (Lane and De Keyser, 1980). Local influences from the Nemaha uplift and the Central Kansas uplift have also been observed in recent studies (Bertalott, 2014; Doll, 2015).

DATA SELECTION AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

Data Set

The data used in this study come from five cores that represent three different areas of the basin (Figure 2). Data analysis and interpretation integrates qualitative data with quantitative data to identify major and minor trends that can be utilized to identify key reservoir intervals with greatest hydrocarbon presence potential. Qualitative data include visual observations of the five cores and include detailed facies analysis, generation of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, analysis of thin section and SEM photomicrographs, and correlation to conventional wireline log signatures. Quantitative data include conventional laboratory analysis for porosity and permeability from core plugs and sections of whole core, pore architecture geometrical attributes identified from thin section and SEM photomicrographs using digital image analysis, and laboratory measured sonic velocity response.

Figure 2.

The study area includes five core from three areas within the North American midcontinent area of Kansas and Oklahoma. An unconventional core with outer ramp facies is from Osage County, Oklahoma, three unconventional cores with middle to inner ramp facies are from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma. A transitional core with proximal outer ramp to shoreline and peritidal facies is from Reno County, Kansas. During the Mississippian Period, this area was located approximately 30° south of the paleo-equator and was covered by a shallow tropical epeiric sea. Regional tectonics beginning at the end of the Devonian and continuing throughout the Mississippian caused the emergence of the Nemaha Uplift, the Ozark Uplift, the Central Kansas Uplift, and the Ouachita Uplift. The same regional tectonic stress regime created a series of foreland basins including the Arkoma Basin located southeast of the areas included in the study in a paleo-dip direction.

Figure 2.

The study area includes five core from three areas within the North American midcontinent area of Kansas and Oklahoma. An unconventional core with outer ramp facies is from Osage County, Oklahoma, three unconventional cores with middle to inner ramp facies are from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma. A transitional core with proximal outer ramp to shoreline and peritidal facies is from Reno County, Kansas. During the Mississippian Period, this area was located approximately 30° south of the paleo-equator and was covered by a shallow tropical epeiric sea. Regional tectonics beginning at the end of the Devonian and continuing throughout the Mississippian caused the emergence of the Nemaha Uplift, the Ozark Uplift, the Central Kansas Uplift, and the Ouachita Uplift. The same regional tectonic stress regime created a series of foreland basins including the Arkoma Basin located southeast of the areas included in the study in a paleo-dip direction.

The cores utilized in this study were selected for three specific reasons common to all cores:

  • 1) Completeness of cored interval:

    • The three cores from Logan and Payne counties are continuous throughout the entire Mississippian section, showing contacts with both the underlying and overlying formations. From west to east, the cores are nearly 100 m (324 ft), 58 m (190 ft), and 44 m (143 ft) thick.

    • The core from Osage County is a continuously cored section of nearly 85 m (278 ft) with three missing intervals associated with Mississippian-age deposition. Sections missing from this core include the uppermost and lowermost sections, including the contact with the Pennsylvanian and Devonian, and an interval near the base of the core that was unable to be recovered.

    • The core from Reno County (Kansas) is a continuously cored 69 m (225 ft) section through the majority of the Mississippian section with the Pennsylvanian and Devonian contacts approximated from wireline log signatures.

  • 2) Availability of conventional wireline log suites (i.e., gamma-ray, caliper, density and neutron porosity, and resistivity logs) and petrophysical data (porosity, permeability, mineralogy from XRD, grain density, and bulk density).

  • 3) The varying distribution of cores from more proximal to the north (Kansas core), moving more distal to the south, proximity to the Nemaha ridge (Osage core), and the relative spacing of the Payne and Logan county cores along depositional strike.

Core Descriptions and Facies Analysis

Total core length from the five wells in this study is 357 m (1173 ft). Facies were defined based on the texture, grain type, sedimentary structures, environmental indicators such as type and intensity of bioturbation as described by Miller and Smail (1997) and MacEachern et al. (2009), and Munsell defined color (Munsell Color, 1995). Facies analysis using the Dunham classification as modified by Embry and Klovan (1971; Dunham, 1962) and interpretation of depositional environments were utilized to create an idealized facies stacking pattern, which in turn was used as the foundation for developing the sequence stratigraphic framework (Loucks and Sarg, 1993; Emery and Myers, 1996; Catuneanu, 2006). Facies colors were identified using a water wetted surface and comparison to the closest match from the GSA Rock-Color Chart, composed of a subset of Munsell color chips (Munsell, 1995) or using the 2009 Munsell Soil Colorbook (Soil Survey Staff, 1993).

Classification of the macro- to mesoscale pore types observed in hand sample and thin sections utilized the classification scheme outlined by Choquette and Pray (1970). Classification of the meso- to nanoscale pores visible only by the SEM utilized the classification scheme outlined by Choquette and Pray (1970) where feasible, and where exceptions were noted other proposed descriptive terminology was utilized as applicable (Loucks et al., 2012; Milliken, 2014; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016).

High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis

The sequence stratigraphic framework applicable to the Mississippian section for the cores used in this study was determined through detailed facies analysis that defined an idealized vertical stacking pattern. The idealized stacking pattern was then used to help define key sequence and cycle boundaries. The idealized facies succession for each core identifies the pattern of deposition that grades from either the deepest interpreted water depths, or most restricted water circulation, upward to the most shallow interpreted water depths, or least restricted environment. This gradation of most restricted to least restricted or deepest water to most shallow-water environment is assumed to represent a single transgressive to regressive pattern of deposition as applicable to each specific location. A hierarchy of sequence and cycle boundaries is proposed for each core based on the idealized stacking pattern and observations from hand samples. It is important to note that currently there is no biostratigraphic control available that can be applied to the sequence stratigraphic framework, so discussions and interpretations of the sequence stratigraphic hierarchy are relative. Although the specific time intervals are not able to be identified at this time, as shown in this study, identification of the depositional hierarchy based on a detailed facies analysis is still useful when key patterns and relationships allow for the application to other areas of the basin (Grammer et al., 2004).

Wireline Logs

A standard suite of wireline logs was available for each of the cores used in this study. The wireline log signature that was most useful for enhancing predictability within the data set is the gamma-raylog, partially because of availability and consistency between locations. Other wireline logs that were integrated into the analysis include: the density–porosity, neutron–porosity, sonic porosity, bulk density, spontaneous potential, resistivity (shallow, medium, deep), compositional analysis, and permeability. As shown in Figures 47, the use of wireline logs in combination with core and petrographic analyses can serve as a powerful tool that helps to constrain the high-frequency sequence stratigraphic framework and allow for correlation of high-frequency sequence and cycle boundaries in areas where core and thin section data may be missing or otherwise unavailable.

Microscopy

Petrographic analysis of 323 thin sections was performed using a Leica DM 2700P optical, or light, microscope (LM). The micro- to nanopore architecture was examined using 132 a FEI Quanta 600F field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) to view samples from the micro- to picoscale.

In addition to more accurate facies descriptions, thin section analysis also allowed for more accurate description and analysis of the macrometer- to nanometer-scale pore sizes, and pore types. Photomicrographs that represent the dominant pore types observed in the samples were captured and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. As described in Vanden Berg and Grammer (2016), all samples viewed with the SEM were polished using an argon ion mill to provide an accurate representation of the pores within a 2-D cross section of the sample.

Conventional Laboratory Measured Data

Conventional laboratory measured porosity (%), air permeability (mD), and Klinkenberg permeability (mD) data were available for all five cores used in this study (ASTM Standard D6539-13, 2013; ASTM Standard D4525-13e1, 2013). Other data available for some of the cores include discrete analysis for oil saturation (%), water saturation (%), grain density (g/cm3), and fluorescence, ambient and NCS porosity, mineralogy classified by percentage as clay (chlorite, kaolinite, illite or mica, marcasite), carbonate (calcite, iron-rich dolomite, dolomite, siderite), or other (quartz, feldspar, plagioclase, pyrite, apatite, marcasite, halite, barite) via XRD analysis, and TOC (%). For core without a suite of XRD analysis, bulk mineralogy was determined using samples representative of the facies within the core. It is important to acknowledge that results from the bulk mineralogy analysis are significantly less specific and therefore less reliable when applied to the identification of trends and patterns that could be used to predict key reservoir intervals and therefore not highly utilized in identification of potentially useful patterns.

Two companies were utilized to measure standard petrophysical properties based on the primary owner of the core. Weatherford Laboratory performed the analysis for the three cores in Logan and Payne counties, and Special Core Analysis Laboratories (SCAL), Inc. performed the analysis for the cores in Osage County and Reno County. All measurements were performed using conventional core analysis procedures. Laboratory measured porosity, air permeability, and Klinkenberg permeability data were utilized to identify potentially significant relationships between reservoir quality, position within the overall sequence stratigraphic framework, and variations within the pore architecture.

Pore Architecture Analysis

The primary goal in the qualitative and quantitative classification of pore architecture is to understand the fundamental features that correlate to laboratory measured porosity and permeability. Qualitative analysis included observations related to the density, spatial distribution, dominant pore size, dominant pore type, and diagenetic alteration that could significantly impact the measured porosity or permeability. Pore-size classification was completed using the classification scheme of Loucks et al. (2012). Pore morphology is utilized to explain both relationships to facies and the sequence stratigraphic framework, and discrepancies to trends that appear to otherwise be applicable within the data set. Digital image analysis (DIA) was utilized to quantify the geometric characteristics of the pore-space representative within several photomicrographs collected using the LM and SEM. Quantitative analysis was performed using the program R to identify relationships between laboratory measured porosity, air permeability, and Klinkenberg permeability with geometric features of representative pores. For a thorough description of the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pore architecture, please see Vanden Berg and Grammer (2016).

Acoustic Response

Acoustic response for this study was measured on core plugs selected to represent large variations in porosity for a given permeability and large variations in permeability for given porosity while also being representative of the different facies within each core. The acoustic response was measured using an AutoLab 1000 from New England Research, Inc. that records the travel time through core plugs for one compressional wave (Vp) and two shear waves (Vs) using affixed transducers and receivers. The plugs were measured under dry, nonsaturated conditions, saturated in a 35 ppt NaCl brine solution, and then remeasured under saturated conditions at five effective pressures at both increasing and decreasing pressure steps, where the confining pressure and pore pressure are both adjusted independently. The data reported are the brine-saturated samples at 20M Pa effective pressure. Because of the high degree of brine water within the formation and variability in present day depth, these values are used because they have the greatest applicability. For a more detailed analysis of the methodology followed to measure the acoustic response, please refer to Vanden Berg and Grammer (2016).

RESULTS

Core Descriptions: Facies Analysis and Interpreted Depositional Environments

Unconventional reservoir core: distal ramp, low-energy depositional environments (Osage County)

The facies preserved in the core from Osage County represents an unconventional reservoir with deposition located in distal, outer-ramp environments, with moderate to highly restricted environments (Figure 3). The contacts with the underlying Devonian and overlying Pennsylvanian stratigraphy are both missing from the cored interval, however both contacts are easily identified based on wireline log signatures. Seven facies were identified based on visual analysis of the core and thin sections with specific observations and descriptive methods followed noted in Table 1a and Figure 4a. Observations from slabbed sections of the core were supplemented with data from other sources as shown in Table 2. Additional supplementary data included bulk XRD analysis from representative facies as shown in Table 3. The interpreted depositional environments transition from a low-energy, highly restricted outer-ramp below storm wave base to a more proximal location on the ramp that remains restricted and is a low-energy environment below storm wave base (Figure 3).

Figure 3.

A basic block model that represents a low-declivity ramp system is applicable to each area included in this study. The Osage County, Oklahoma, core represents deposition in an outer ramp position. The Logan and Payne county, Oklahoma, cores represent deposition in the middle to inner ramp position. The Reno County, Kansas, core represents deposition from the middle ramp position to on-shore tidal flats. Figure modified from Hanford (1986).

Figure 3.

A basic block model that represents a low-declivity ramp system is applicable to each area included in this study. The Osage County, Oklahoma, core represents deposition in an outer ramp position. The Logan and Payne county, Oklahoma, cores represent deposition in the middle to inner ramp position. The Reno County, Kansas, core represents deposition from the middle ramp position to on-shore tidal flats. Figure modified from Hanford (1986).

Figure 4.

Unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma. The unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma, is composed of predominately distal facies deposited in an outer ramp to middle ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system has 85m (278 ft) of recovered Mississippian age core. (A) There are seven facies identified based on subtle variations in texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). Although an idealized facies stacking pattern was applied to the core, the transition from Facies 1 to Facies 7 is more accurately described as a transition from a highly restricted, low-energy environment to depositional environments that have nearly normal marine circulation close to, but still beneath, storm wave base. A proximal facies, Facies 4, is interpreted to be deposited within the stratigraphic succession due to transportation from significant storm events.

Figure 4.

Unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma. The unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma, is composed of predominately distal facies deposited in an outer ramp to middle ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system has 85m (278 ft) of recovered Mississippian age core. (A) There are seven facies identified based on subtle variations in texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). Although an idealized facies stacking pattern was applied to the core, the transition from Facies 1 to Facies 7 is more accurately described as a transition from a highly restricted, low-energy environment to depositional environments that have nearly normal marine circulation close to, but still beneath, storm wave base. A proximal facies, Facies 4, is interpreted to be deposited within the stratigraphic succession due to transportation from significant storm events.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval near the base of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location began in the Early Mississippian Period and captures the earliest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval near the base of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location began in the Early Mississippian Period and captures the earliest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

Table 1.

(A) Osage County, Oklahoma Core: Unconventional Reservoir Facies

Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1MudstoneLaminated beddingCrinoidsBlackInterparticle, cementedMatrix, cemented5560.8783119.81Outer ramp below storm wave base
2Mudstone-wackestoneNodular beddingCrinoidsblack to greyInterparticle, moldic, cementedMatrix, cemented, interparticle5300.5416673135.766667Outer ramp below storm wave base
3Wackestone-packstoneMassive beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, ooids, skeletal debrisTanInterparticle, cemented, moldicCemented, interparticle, matrix5396.2766673089.29Outer ramp below storm wave base
4Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsGray and brownInterparticle, cementedMatrix, interparticle, cemented5366.9663087.438Outer to inner ramp, transported from proximal inner ramp location
5WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsBlack, brown, tan, greyInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, matrix5434.8953049.0225Distal inner ramp
6Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingSponge spiculesBlack, brownCemented, interparticleCemented, matrix, moldic, interparticle5486.9933333239.156667Proximal inner ramp
7Mudstone to WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, skeletel debrisTan, black, brownInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, moldic5532.1752980.95Restricted, muddy, lagoon
Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1MudstoneLaminated beddingCrinoidsBlackInterparticle, cementedMatrix, cemented5560.8783119.81Outer ramp below storm wave base
2Mudstone-wackestoneNodular beddingCrinoidsblack to greyInterparticle, moldic, cementedMatrix, cemented, interparticle5300.5416673135.766667Outer ramp below storm wave base
3Wackestone-packstoneMassive beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, ooids, skeletal debrisTanInterparticle, cemented, moldicCemented, interparticle, matrix5396.2766673089.29Outer ramp below storm wave base
4Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsGray and brownInterparticle, cementedMatrix, interparticle, cemented5366.9663087.438Outer to inner ramp, transported from proximal inner ramp location
5WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsBlack, brown, tan, greyInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, matrix5434.8953049.0225Distal inner ramp
6Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingSponge spiculesBlack, brownCemented, interparticleCemented, matrix, moldic, interparticle5486.9933333239.156667Proximal inner ramp
7Mudstone to WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, skeletel debrisTan, black, brownInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, moldic5532.1752980.95Restricted, muddy, lagoon

(B) Logan County, Oklahoma and Payne County, Oklahoma Cores: Unconventional Reservoir Facies

Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Glauconitic sandstoneMassive bedded, burrowedBrachiopod fragmentsDark greenish greyn/an/an/an/aDistal outer ramp, low-energy environment below storm wave base
2Burrowed calcareous mudstone-wackestonePlanar laminations, local bioturbationBrachiopod, sponge spiculesBrownish black to greyish blackInterparticleMatrix5602.443185.86Middle ramp
3Bioturbated wackestone-packstoneBioturbated and burrowed, local thin beddingCrinoid, brachiopod fragments, sponge spiculesDusky yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle, intraparticle5406.402951.45Proximal ramp
4Peloidal packstone-grainstoneMassive bedded, bioturbatedPeloids, crinoids, sponge spicules, brachiopod fragmentsOlive greyInterparticleMatrix, intraparticle5570.183490.82Proximal ramp
5Skeletal packstone-grainstoneCross-bedded skeletal debrisCrinoid, brachiopod, bryozoan fragments, sponge spicules, peloidsMedium to dark gray and dark yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle5749.952964.71Proximal ramp, high-energy shoal, above fair weather wave base
Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Glauconitic sandstoneMassive bedded, burrowedBrachiopod fragmentsDark greenish greyn/an/an/an/aDistal outer ramp, low-energy environment below storm wave base
2Burrowed calcareous mudstone-wackestonePlanar laminations, local bioturbationBrachiopod, sponge spiculesBrownish black to greyish blackInterparticleMatrix5602.443185.86Middle ramp
3Bioturbated wackestone-packstoneBioturbated and burrowed, local thin beddingCrinoid, brachiopod fragments, sponge spiculesDusky yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle, intraparticle5406.402951.45Proximal ramp
4Peloidal packstone-grainstoneMassive bedded, bioturbatedPeloids, crinoids, sponge spicules, brachiopod fragmentsOlive greyInterparticleMatrix, intraparticle5570.183490.82Proximal ramp
5Skeletal packstone-grainstoneCross-bedded skeletal debrisCrinoid, brachiopod, bryozoan fragments, sponge spicules, peloidsMedium to dark gray and dark yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle5749.952964.71Proximal ramp, high-energy shoal, above fair weather wave base

(C) Reno County, Kansas Core: Unconventional Reservoir to Conventional Reservoir Facies

Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Mudstone-wackestone Crinoid fragments, skeletal debrisLight grey to blackInterparticleMatrix6106.913116.11Inner ramp, below storm wave base
2Crinoidal wacketsone-packstone Crinoids, bivalvesGrey with black laminationsInterparticleMatrix5914.972962.15Inner ramp, below storm wave base
3Mudstone-peloidal/skeletal wackestone Peloids, crinoids, skeletal debrisGray and greyish greenn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
4Mudstone-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal bedding with wavy laminationsCrinoids, peloids, skeletal debrisBrown and greyInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5103.3466672628.926667Inner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
5Crinoid-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, skeletal debrisDark to light brownn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, below fair weather wave base
6Mustone-skeletal wackestoneLarge-scale cross-bedding, stacked fining upward sequencesIndeterminate skeletal debrisLight brownInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5271.8662798.766Innter ramp, above fair weather wave base
7Dolomitized mudstone-wackestoneHorizontal, laminated, wavy beddingn/aLight brown to grey-brownIntercrystallineOrganic, moldic4626.962602.268Tidal flat
8MudstoneLaminatedn/aGrey-brown, dark olive brownIntercrystallineInterparticle4196.5352349.12Tidal flat
9MudstoneWavy horizontal laminationsn/aLight olive greenInterparticleInterparticle4015.5852215Tidal flat
10Laminated MudstoneLaminatedSponge spiculesBlack and brownIntercrystallineInterparticle3771.182093.84Tidal flat
11Bioturbated MudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aLight olive brown to dark grey brownInterparticleInterparticle4123.793501.73Tidal flat
12Spiculitic mudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aRose-pink to greyish greenInterparticle, moldicInterparticle2452.642270.95Tidal flat
Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Mudstone-wackestone Crinoid fragments, skeletal debrisLight grey to blackInterparticleMatrix6106.913116.11Inner ramp, below storm wave base
2Crinoidal wacketsone-packstone Crinoids, bivalvesGrey with black laminationsInterparticleMatrix5914.972962.15Inner ramp, below storm wave base
3Mudstone-peloidal/skeletal wackestone Peloids, crinoids, skeletal debrisGray and greyish greenn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
4Mudstone-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal bedding with wavy laminationsCrinoids, peloids, skeletal debrisBrown and greyInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5103.3466672628.926667Inner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
5Crinoid-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, skeletal debrisDark to light brownn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, below fair weather wave base
6Mustone-skeletal wackestoneLarge-scale cross-bedding, stacked fining upward sequencesIndeterminate skeletal debrisLight brownInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5271.8662798.766Innter ramp, above fair weather wave base
7Dolomitized mudstone-wackestoneHorizontal, laminated, wavy beddingn/aLight brown to grey-brownIntercrystallineOrganic, moldic4626.962602.268Tidal flat
8MudstoneLaminatedn/aGrey-brown, dark olive brownIntercrystallineInterparticle4196.5352349.12Tidal flat
9MudstoneWavy horizontal laminationsn/aLight olive greenInterparticleInterparticle4015.5852215Tidal flat
10Laminated MudstoneLaminatedSponge spiculesBlack and brownIntercrystallineInterparticle3771.182093.84Tidal flat
11Bioturbated MudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aLight olive brown to dark grey brownInterparticleInterparticle4123.793501.73Tidal flat
12Spiculitic mudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aRose-pink to greyish greenInterparticle, moldicInterparticle2452.642270.95Tidal flat
Table 2.
  Thin SectionsIon Polished Samples Viewed with SEMAcoustic Reponse (dry)Acoustic Response (Brine Saturated)Cored Interval (m, ft.)
Osage County, OklahomaDistal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)5067933485 m, 278 ft
Logan County, OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)9436191999 m, 324 ft
Payne County (west), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)6938161458 m, 190 ft
Payne County (east), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)2237141444 m, 143 ft
Reno County, KansasProximal ramp to shoreline deposition (Transitional from unconventional to conventional reservoir)8730393470 m, 230 ft
All Cores in StudyDistal outer ramp to shoreline deposition322208181115356 m, 1165 ft
  Thin SectionsIon Polished Samples Viewed with SEMAcoustic Reponse (dry)Acoustic Response (Brine Saturated)Cored Interval (m, ft.)
Osage County, OklahomaDistal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)5067933485 m, 278 ft
Logan County, OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)9436191999 m, 324 ft
Payne County (west), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)6938161458 m, 190 ft
Payne County (east), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)2237141444 m, 143 ft
Reno County, KansasProximal ramp to shoreline deposition (Transitional from unconventional to conventional reservoir)8730393470 m, 230 ft
All Cores in StudyDistal outer ramp to shoreline deposition322208181115356 m, 1165 ft

Unconventional Reservoir Core: Proximal Ramp, Medium-Energy Depositional Environments (Logan and Payne County)

The three cores located in Logan and Payne counties have been grouped based on lateral proximity and orientation to paleostratigraphic strike, as well as similarity in facies observed in each core. Each of the three cores includes the stratigraphic contact with the underlying Devonian Woodford Shale and the overlying Pennsylvanian deposits. Five facies were identified based on visual analysis of the core and thin sections with specific observations and descriptive methods followed noted in Table 1b and Figure 5. Observations from slabbed sections of the core were supplemented with data from other sources as shown in Table 2. The interpreted depositional environments transition from a position on the inner-ramp position below storm wave base to a more proximal position above fair-weather wave base in a high-energy shoal environment (Figure 3).

Figure 5.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. The unconventional cores from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma are composed of predominantly proximal facies deposited in a middle to inner ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from the three locations is approximately 200m (657ft). There are five facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies were placed into an idealized facies stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

Figure 5.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. The unconventional cores from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma are composed of predominantly proximal facies deposited in a middle to inner ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from the three locations is approximately 200m (657ft). There are five facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies were placed into an idealized facies stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

Transitional Reservoir Core: Proximal Ramp to Shoreline, Low-Energy to High-Energy to Shoreline Depositional Environments (Reno County)

The facies preserved in the core from Reno County represent an unconventional reservoir with low porosity, low permeability, and predominantly micro- to nanoporosity at the base that transitions into a conventional reservoir with higher porosity and permeability with predominantly macro- to mesoporosity in the top portion of the core. The contacts with the underlying Devonian and overlying Pennsylvanian are not present in the cored interval, but both are easily identified from the wireline log signatures. Twelve facies were identified based on visual analysis of the core and thin sections with specific observations and descriptive methods followed noted in Table 1c and Figure 7. Observations from slabbed sections of the core were supplemented with data from other sources as shown in Table 2. The interpreted depositional environments transition from a position on the inner ramp, below storm wave base to shoreface and tidal flat environments (Figure 3).

High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphic Framework

The interpreted depositional environments indicate deposition occurred on a low-declivity ramp with deposition transitioning from a distal position below storm wave base to a slightly more proximal position that remains below fair-weather wave base. An idealized stacking pattern was established using principles of Walther’s Law representing a single shallowing-upward facies profile that is correlated to a single large-scale transgressive and regressive phase. The ideal stacking pattern also represents a relative shallowing-upward sequence from deeper to more shallow water with increasingly improved water circulation and oxygenation. The idealized stacking pattern was used as a foundation to identify the sequence stratigraphic framework (Figures 4b, 6, 7b).

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. Without biostratigraphic data the time interval represented is unknown. Due to the lack of alteration from major exposure intervals or other globally correlated features, placement within the Mississippian Period is not feasible at this time. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data. (A) Logan County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (B) (West) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (C) (East) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. Without biostratigraphic data the time interval represented is unknown. Due to the lack of alteration from major exposure intervals or other globally correlated features, placement within the Mississippian Period is not feasible at this time. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data. (A) Logan County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (B) (West) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (C) (East) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data.

Figure 7.

Transitional core from Reno County, Kansas. The transitional core from Reno County, Kansas, is composed of a shallowing upward sequence of deposition from a middle ramp environment to near-shore and peritidal locations on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from this location is approximately 72m(238ft). (A) There are twelve facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facie are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies are placed into an idealized stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

Figure 7.

Transitional core from Reno County, Kansas. The transitional core from Reno County, Kansas, is composed of a shallowing upward sequence of deposition from a middle ramp environment to near-shore and peritidal locations on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from this location is approximately 72m(238ft). (A) There are twelve facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facie are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies are placed into an idealized stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval that impacts the upper portion of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location culminated at the end of the Mississippian and captures the latest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall and hiatus between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval that impacts the upper portion of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location culminated at the end of the Mississippian and captures the latest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall and hiatus between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

Based on the identified facies, the largest scale sequence, interpreted as either a 2nd- or 3rd-order sequence, includes the entire cored interval. Within this sequence are two higher order frequency sequences that are likely either 3rd- or 4th-order sequences and 4th- or 5th-order cycles. Because there is no biostratigraphic control, the exact time intervals and therefore precise temporal definitions of the cyclicity cannot be ascertained unequivocally. For purposes of detailed results and discussion, the sequences will be referenced, from largest to smallest, as a 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order sequence.

Each of the cores has a single 2nd-order sequence that is assumed to be correlative within the Mid-Continent region. Each of the 2nd-order sequences shows an overall shallowing-upward, regressive depositional character, which is consistent with global sea-level curves that show a gradual fall in eustatic sea level throughout the Mississippian (Figure 1; Haq and Schutter, 2008). The cores from Reno County, Logan County, and Payne County have four identified 3rd-order sequences, and the core from Osage County has six identified 3rd-order sequences. Each of these sequences has slight to obvious asymmetry with a longer regressive phase than transgressive phase preserved in the core.

Sequence Stratigraphic Framework, Porosity, Permeability, and Wireline Log Relationship

As observed in the wireline logs available, the gamma-ray log signature consistently has a correlation to the 3rd-order sequence (Figure 6). Although this relationship should be verified by facies observations, use of the gamma-ray log can provide a 1st-order identification of the number and thickness of 3rd-order sequences within the Mississippian stratigraphic interval. Wireline log correlation with higher resolution depositional sequences are not sufficiently consistent to be used with accuracy. However, there is a consistent relationship observed between the 4th-order sequences and intervals that have the highest laboratory measured porosity and permeability. Where both the measured porosity and permeability are relatively high, these intervals correlate with the top of the 4th-order sequences. Additionally, this correlation is observed to be most consistent within the regressive phase of preserved deposition both on the 2nd- and 3rd-order scale. Although there are some 4th-order sequences within each of the five cores that do not follow this relationship, the overall consistency of this relationship within each of the study areas indicates this type of observation could be used as a 1st-order approximation to identify intervals for closer analysis of other key reservoir properties (TOC, % water, % oil, brittleness, etc.).

A second pattern was observed in the Osage County core with the most distal depositional facies preserved. A moderate correlation exists between intervals with both relatively high porosity and permeability and the top of the 4th-order sequences that are within the 2nd- and 3rd-order transgressive phase (Figure 8a). Because this was the only core with this relationship, it is possibly related to specific diagenetic alteration in this part of the region, including observations of hydrothermal brecciation present only within this section of the core.

Figure 8.

In each of the three areas of the basin included in this study, there is a predictable relationship between the gamma-ray log and the defined sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed black lines. There is also a predictable relationship between the relatively high values of laboratory measured porosity and permeability with the sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed blue lines. (A) Osage County, Oklahoma, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

Figure 8.

In each of the three areas of the basin included in this study, there is a predictable relationship between the gamma-ray log and the defined sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed black lines. There is also a predictable relationship between the relatively high values of laboratory measured porosity and permeability with the sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed blue lines. (A) Osage County, Oklahoma, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

B,C: Logan and Payne County, Oklahoma core. (B) West Payne County, Oklahoma, core. (C) and East Payne County, Oklahoma core.

B,C: Logan and Payne County, Oklahoma core. (B) West Payne County, Oklahoma, core. (C) and East Payne County, Oklahoma core.

(D) Logan County, Oklahoma, core. Relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

(D) Logan County, Oklahoma, core. Relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

(E) Reno County, Kansas, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

(E) Reno County, Kansas, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

Mineralogy

The three unconventional cores that represent proximal to distal depositional environments have the greatest detailed mineralogy data. Data for these cores were determined by Weatherford Laboratories using bulk x-ray diffraction with detailed results shown in Table 3. Examination of the detailed mineral composition, as well as mineralogy inferred from wireline logs for the other two cores, highlights the nature of the mixed carbonate–siliciclastic sediment composition during the Mississippian in this part of the NAMC region. Some of the variability noted in the mineral composition is a direct consequence of several phases of diagenetic alteration in this region, including alteration to porous and nonporous chert. However, based on observations from thin section analysis, there was also a significant amount of original siliciclastic deposition in some intervals and time periods. With the exception of the alteration to chert or other significant silicification of facies, the percentage of original siliciclastic input varies based on specific facies classification and associated depositional environment.

The detailed laboratory measured mineralogy indicates that there is up to 15% illite or mixed-layer illite and smectite clay content, and the wireline log data estimate a similar composition of clay mineralogy with some intervals indicating up to 45% clay content. This percentage of clay minerals is most likely a representation of the amount of clays within the matrix and not a true a representation of the clay precipitation within the pore space that has been shown to be related to the measured porosity and permeability (Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016). This assumption is based on observations of clay minerals within the pore space compared with bulk response observed in core and thin sections. Similarly, the amount of quartz is estimated to be up to 100% from laboratory measured samples and up to 80% composition from wireline log estimates. This estimated composition also does not have a consistently predictable relationship with relatively high porosity and permeability even though there is a qualitative relationship between quartz or calcite within the pore space and measured porosity and permeability (Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016).

Enhanced Predictability via Laboratory Measured Acoustic Response

The acoustic response data were measured for samples representative of primary facies and depositional environments. The data set also had a large variability in the porosity and permeability and was used to identify end-member relationships that might be applicable to other carbonate-mudrock reservoir data sets. As observed in Figure 9A, the samples have porosity from 0% to nearly 50%, with associated compressional velocity of 2000 m/s to 6400 m/s and associated shear wave velocity of 1000 m/s to 5000 m/s.

Figure 9.

Laboratory measured acoustic response and porosity data for the areas in the study. (A) The velocity is inversely related to the porosity, similar to what has been shown to be a reliablely predictive relationship in other carbonate data sets (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999, Eberli et al. 2001). The Wyllie time average equation is an adequate approximation for this relationship for samples that have porosity >10%. For samples with <10% porosity, the Wyllie time average equation is the effective upper boundary of the data.

Figure 9.

Laboratory measured acoustic response and porosity data for the areas in the study. (A) The velocity is inversely related to the porosity, similar to what has been shown to be a reliablely predictive relationship in other carbonate data sets (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999, Eberli et al. 2001). The Wyllie time average equation is an adequate approximation for this relationship for samples that have porosity >10%. For samples with <10% porosity, the Wyllie time average equation is the effective upper boundary of the data.

(B) Closer analysis of the data with relatively low measured porosity (<10%), shows a nearly linear relationship between the velocity response and porosity.

(B) Closer analysis of the data with relatively low measured porosity (<10%), shows a nearly linear relationship between the velocity response and porosity.

As noted in Figure 9A, the Wyllie time average equation is plotted as a reference line for comparison to other data sets. The Wyllie time average equation is plotted using values for calcite for comparison to pure carbonate systems, but could also be shown using values for quartz or clay mineralogy as shown in Figure 9B. The curves in Figure 9B also identify the effect significant clay and quartz mineral content within the matrix have on the sonic velocity response.

In a pure carbonate system the Wyllie time average equation is both a good approximation of the relationship between sonic velocity and porosity, but also a useful baseline that can be used to qualitatively predict the permeability within the data set (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1999). As shown in the data for the NAMC Mississippian stratigraphic interval, the Wyllie time average equation is a reasonable approximation of the relationship between sonic velocity and porosity for samples that have a measured porosity that is greater than 10%. For the samples with a measured porosity that is less than 10%, which is the majority of the data set that is representative of unconventional reservoir facies, a different best-fit line needs to be identified (Figure 9b). A data-specific relationship can be defined with reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.79) using a simple linear relationship. It is necessary to identify a best fit line to help relate scatter in the velocity–porosity relationship to permeability.

DISCUSSION

Facies Analysis and Sequence Stratigraphic Framework

As noted in the introduction, the five cores were chosen for several reasons including the variety of facies from depositional environments within the NAMC Mississippian-age stratigraphic section (Figures 2 and 3). Facies from the Osage County core are primarily representative of a distal-ramp environment or a highly restricted, low-energy environment in the inner- to outer-ramp area. Facies preserved in the cores from Logan and Payne Counties are primarily representative of a middle-ramp to inner-ramp environment and are also oriented along the paleostrike. Facies preserved in the core from Reno County are primarily representative of a proximal outer ramp to shoreline and peritidal depositional environments. Understanding how the sequence stratigraphic framework varies in each area and how this correlates to variability in mineral composition, pore architecture, and correlation to wireline log responses are all key observations that can potentially provide insight into predicting key reservoir intervals within this oil and gas play and can also provide insight into the application to other similar reservoir systems.

A comparison of the sequence stratigraphic framework from the three areas highlights the potential depositional variability within the system but also indicates that the sequence stratigraphic framework fundamentally has a high degree of similarity within the region. There is a significant amount of variability in the number of 4th-order sequences identified in each core, which represents the impact of autocyclic and allocyclic processes on preserved facies within a tectonically active region. However, there is also a consistent correlation observed in each core between the relative 3rd-order sequences and the gamma-ray log signature that indicates this is a useful tool for a 1st-order approximation of the number and thickness of these units. As shown with the three cores from Logan and Payne counties, which are within relatively close lateral proximity and are also located along paleodepositional strike, the 3rd-order sequence can also be used to identify localized patterns in deposition and associated local geometric patterns of deposition (Figure 10). Additionally, a similar pattern exists in each core that can be used to predict intervals with the highest porosity and permeability within the NAMC Mississippian section. As shown in Figure 8A–E, at each interval where there is a relatively high value of both porosity and permeability, these intervals correspond to the highest level of depositional hierarchy identified from facies analysis (relative 5th order). These intervals occasionally correlate to an increased response from the wireline logs. These intervals are typically at the top of the 4th-order sequences that are within the regressive phase of both the 3rd- and 2nd-order depositional sequences. Although there are exceptions, this general observation can be used as an initial estimate of where the highest porosity and permeability intervals are located. Once confirmed with laboratory measurements, this trend can be used to target idealized well placement and completions strategies in reservoir development.

Figure 10.

As shown in the three cores from Payne and Logan county (middle above), a relatively defined 3rd-order sequence can be used to identify local patterns in deposition. This can be used to further predict spatial and geometric patterns used for reservoir exploration and development. Although facies are different in other parts of the basin, the sequence stratigraphic pattern is similar and can be used for similar predictions in other areas of the basin following facies identification and correlation to log signatures.

Figure 10.

As shown in the three cores from Payne and Logan county (middle above), a relatively defined 3rd-order sequence can be used to identify local patterns in deposition. This can be used to further predict spatial and geometric patterns used for reservoir exploration and development. Although facies are different in other parts of the basin, the sequence stratigraphic pattern is similar and can be used for similar predictions in other areas of the basin following facies identification and correlation to log signatures.

Comparison to Modern Depositional Environments

The assumptions related to the geometry of the depositional system observed in the five cores are consistent with other recent research using data from this area and time period (e.g., Bertalot, 2014; Price, 2014; Childress, 2015; Doll, 2015; LeBlanc, 2015). Furthermore, these results are consistent with previously published research that describes typical depositional environments, geometry of the deposits as related to fundamental albeit generalized bathymetry features, and potential diagenetic alterations (Gischler et al., 2005; Harris, 2009; Harris et al., 1985; Jordan and Wilson, 1994; Handford, 1986; McNeill et al., 2005). The NAMC area in the Mississippian period is an example of a low-declivity ramp system that abuts an actively subsiding foreland basin created by regional tectonism. Burchette and Wright (1992), in their analysis of carbonate-ramp depositional systems, highlight several key potential depositional features that are possible, and unique, to a ramp environment due to the natural tendency to develop into flat-topped depositional environments. For example, shoal deposits in a ramp setting have a tendency to form “sheet-like grainstone units” that “migrate or prograde rapidly” as linear belts that parallel a distal foreland basin depocenter. Settings that have been isolated by foredeep areas are typically absent of siliciclastics due to very low quantities of terrigenous sediment able to be transported to these locations. Another generic depositional feature that is applicable to the data set is the observation that carbonate ramps associated with foreland basins, as with the Ouchita orogeny and resultant series of foreland basins that includes the Oklahoma Anadarko and Arkoma basins (Figure 2), are often subject to repetitive episodes of uplift and drowning. Some of this uplift creates complicated karsted unconformities within the middle- and inner-ramp areas that are only locally present. With a ramp that has a very low-declivity slope, the inner-ramp areas can be several hundreds of kilometers along strike, which can potentially further complicate the depositional and diagenetic history through local tectonism and differential rates in both carbonate and terrigenous sediment supplies.

As noted in the facies descriptions with interpreted depositional environments, a low-declivity carbonate ramp or distally steepened carbonate ramp adjacent to a foreland basin is best described through divisions generically termed the inner-, middle-, and outer-ramp area (Figure 3). Loosely defined, the carbonate ramp is gently sloping with an overall slope of less than 1° but can locally be significantly steeper. The inner ramp includes deposition from the upper shoreface (beach, lagoons) and fair-weather wave base where there is nearly constant wave activity that has a lasting effect on deposition and sedimentologic features. The middle ramp extends between the fair-weather wave base to normal-storm wave base with potentially significant variability in the water depths and frequent reworking of sediment by larger storm waves. The outer ramp is defined as the area below normal-storm wave base where there is little to no storm deposition and has a significant amount of mud and clay sedimentation. A slight modification to these classically defined areas includes observations from the Florida shelf and specifically Florida Bay where areas close to the shoreline have a greater amount of eolian-deposited quartz and are likely to have low-energy depositional areas with a high percentage of very fine-grained silt, clay, and carbonate-mud sedimentation. In those areas water circulation is restricted due to local changes in bathymetry due to the location of mud banks or restriction from islands located in a windward direction (Harris et al., 1985; Harris, 2009).

Facies from an additional geometrically defined slope environment located between the outer ramp and the basin in distally steepened ramps are also observed in several ancient systems (Burchette and Wright, 1992). This type of depositional environment can occur in several types of sedimentary basins, but are largest and most common “where subsidence is flexural and slow and gradients are slight over large areas” (Burchette and Wright, 1992), such as the NAMC area during the Mississippian period. Also similar to the study areas are observations that diagenesis on a carbonate-ramp system is often significantly different from what occurs on flat-topped carbonate platforms and steep-slope depositional environments. Observations of different carbonate-ramp systems suggest that “early marine cementation is less pronounced and seawater dolomitization driven by processes such as Kohout convection is absent” (Burchette and Wright, 1992). Also potentially significant is the observation that due to the low-declivity slope in a ramp system, “the meteoric zone may extend for significant distances offshore so that mixing zone dolomitization and leaching are important processes” (Burchette and Wright, 1992) observed in diagenesis. Several other observations from Burchette and Wright (1992) include the potential for peritidal sediments to be microbially laminated and extend for significant distances, as inferred from thicknesses preserved in the transitional core used in this study.

Modern Depositional Analogs

Comparing ancient deposits to modern depositional environments is a valuable and practice exercise to help conceptualize the potential spatial distribution and geometry of identified reservoir facies during a single time slice (Grammer et al., 2004). One modern analogue that is applicable to the three different parts of the study area from most distal to most proximal deposition is the Persian Gulf where carbonate deposition can be observed in an arid environment close to the equator, on an attached gently sloping ramp system. A comparison between the observations from core and this depositional system should provide useful perspective related to the potential 3-D facies distribution and heterogeneity in the subsurface. Although the current paleodepositional models (Lane and De Keyser, 1980; Childress, 2015) are useful, they do not highlight the potential affects that can result from bathymetric changes within a basin or region and are also too generalized for predictions of reservoir units.

The Persian Gulf is a northwest–southeast trending body of water that is bordered by Oman, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Qatar, and Saudi Arabia to the south and southwest, and Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran to the northwest and north. The Persian Gulf carbonate ramp is gently sloping where water depths range from largely exposed sabkhas to depths greater than 80 m (260 ft) in the Zagros Mountain foredeep in Iran (Wilkinson and Drummond, 2004). Holocene sediments have accumulated over an area that is 500 km (310 mi) long and up to 60 km (37 mi) wide (Alsharhan and Kendall, 2003). Sedimentation in the Persian Gulf is believed to be controlled by a number of factors including an arid climate, wave energy, orientation with respect to northwest prevailing winds, and offshore barriers (Alsharhan and Kendall, 2003). General facies types include supratidal sabkha deposits, various types of bioclastic carbonate sands composed of skeletal fragments, peloids, and ooids, muddy carbonate sands, and carbonate mud (Figure 11; Alsharhan and Kendall, 2003; Wilkinson and Drummond, 2004). Bioclastic and oolitic sands are deposited in high-energy settings located predominantly on the southern margin of the Arabian coast (Alsharhan and Kendall, 2003). These bioclastic sediments are found as deep as 20 m (66 ft), suggesting that storm wave base is at least this deep (Alsharhan and Kendall, 2003). Generalized facies types occur in wide facies belts paralleling the shoreline, with the highest energy facies (carbonate sands) being deposited closest to the shore (Alsharhan and Kendall, 2003).

Figure 11.

Modern depositional analogue. Deposition in the Persian Gulf is a modern analogue to deposition in the North American midcontinent during the Mississippian. Deposition in the Persian Gulf occurs on an attached ramp system with significant variability in facies deposited in relatively deep water transitioning to shoreline, tidal flat and restricted tidal flat lagoon environments. The facies map shows the general facies trends are strike elongate and parallel the shoreline based on water depth. Facies within this modern system are generically classified, from deepest water (brown) to most shallow water depth (yellow): carbonate mud, muddy carbonate sand and mud, bioclatic carbonate sand, and peloidal and skeletal packstones to grainstones. This facies mosaic is similar to what is observed in core used in this study when placed into generic depositional environments and facies classifications. Image modified from Wagnerand Togt, 1973.

Figure 11.

Modern depositional analogue. Deposition in the Persian Gulf is a modern analogue to deposition in the North American midcontinent during the Mississippian. Deposition in the Persian Gulf occurs on an attached ramp system with significant variability in facies deposited in relatively deep water transitioning to shoreline, tidal flat and restricted tidal flat lagoon environments. The facies map shows the general facies trends are strike elongate and parallel the shoreline based on water depth. Facies within this modern system are generically classified, from deepest water (brown) to most shallow water depth (yellow): carbonate mud, muddy carbonate sand and mud, bioclatic carbonate sand, and peloidal and skeletal packstones to grainstones. This facies mosaic is similar to what is observed in core used in this study when placed into generic depositional environments and facies classifications. Image modified from Wagnerand Togt, 1973.

Comparison of NAMC Mississippian-age facies to those observed in the Persian Gulf allows for a 1st-order interpretation of the spatial distribution of facies and possible water depths at the time of deposition. Similar to the facies observed in the study area, facies being deposited in the Persian Gulf are directly related to physical location on the outer-, middle- or inner-ramp area, are spatially distributed in a manner that is a direct result of the water depth, wave base, and wave energy in the depositional environment, and in a pattern that is primarily strike elongate, more or less parallel to the coastline but with a high degree of correlation to water depth contours (Gischler and Lomando, 2005). Within the modern depositional system, facies range from low-energy marls or muds to wackestone, packstones, and grainstones deposited toward higher energy, shallower water, inner-ramp environments, and peritidal sediments that are capped by sabkha deposits in the coastal areas in the northern part of the Persian Gulf (Evans, 1966; Gischler and Lomando, 2005). Applying the Persian Gulf depositional system as an analog, it is likely the peloidal and skeletal packstone and grainstone facies observed in the NAMC area during the Mississippian period were (1) deposited in 1–20 m (3–65 ft) water depth, (2) are primarily strike elongate but certainly paleodepositional elongate, and (3) decrease in thickness in a basinward direction. It is also a reasonable assumption the carbonate-mudstone facies were deposited in water depths that were greater than 20 m (65 ft), where there is very low energy in the depositional environment, and also deposited in generally strike elongate geometry that parallels the paleoshoreline with increasing thickness in a basinward direction (Esrafili-Dizaji and Rahimpour-Bonab, 2009).

Where this modern analog has the greatest potential to deviate significantly from depositional patterns in the NAMC during the Mississippian period is in locations where deposition was impacted by the presence of both large- and small-scale bathymetric changes occurring due to a tectonically active margin, a tectonically active interior, and actively subsiding basins adjacent to the carbonate ramp (Arkoma Basin and Anadarko Basin). Because the North American continent was partially inundated with an epeiric sea, both large and small-scale bathymetric changes would have potentially significant impacts on the resultant facies mosaics due to small-scale changes to the eustatic sea level enhanced or muted by local subsidence or uplift. Despite these differences, it is clear the distribution of facies observed in the Persian Gulf area can easily be extrapolated to areas within the NAMC area to provide an additional level of predictability of facies along what is currently understood to be the paleostrike and paleodip directions.

Another modern analog that can provide insight into depositional geometries is the Florida Bay where interior muds are deposited in sheltered areas with variable energy and variable siliciclastic input. The Florida Bay is another example of a low-declivity shelf that has potentially significant differences in depositional environments and amount of siliciclastic or carbonate deposition depending on which part of the region is being studied. For example, a lateral transect from Florida Bay to the west along the current low-declivity depositional “shelf” would likely have greater similarity in depositional features than a lateral transect that begins in Florida Bay and moves toward the south or to the east (Harris, 2009; McNeill et al., 2005). The variability of depositional environments preserved and observed in the study area where a relatively short lateral distance between Payne and Osage counties, Oklahoma, has significantly different depositional facies preserved. These differences might be related to different time periods within the Mississippian and could also be an indication of how quickly the bathymetry changed in some parts of the NAMC during the Mississippian.

ACOUSTIC RESPONSE

In conventional carbonates, the relationship between porosity and acoustic response (sonic velocity) has a clear inverse relationship that can be approximated by the Wyllie time average equation (Figure 12a; Anselmetti et al., 1997). Scatter present and deviations from the fundamental relationship between velocity and porosity are related to the dominant pore type (Figure 12b; Anselmetti et al., 1997). Understanding how the dominant pore type affects the velocity response in carbonates can potentially provide information that can be used to predict permeability (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1993, 1999; Anselmetti et al., 1997, 1998).

Figure 12.

(A) The relationship between the acoustic response, or velocity, and measured porosity has a predictable inverse relationship. The relationship can be approximated with the Wyllie time average equation with the Woods equation presented as a useful lower boundary to the data. (B) When the data are plotted based on categories of predominant macropore type, there are data groupings observed that can be applied to enhance the predictability of the velocity-porosity relationship in carbonates that predominantly have macroporosity. Figures used with permission from G. Eberli. (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999; Eberli 2001).

Figure 12.

(A) The relationship between the acoustic response, or velocity, and measured porosity has a predictable inverse relationship. The relationship can be approximated with the Wyllie time average equation with the Woods equation presented as a useful lower boundary to the data. (B) When the data are plotted based on categories of predominant macropore type, there are data groupings observed that can be applied to enhance the predictability of the velocity-porosity relationship in carbonates that predominantly have macroporosity. Figures used with permission from G. Eberli. (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999; Eberli 2001).

Understanding the relationship between acoustic response and porosity provides the potential for further enhanced predictability of permeability in conventional carbonates (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1999). As shown in this dataset, the acoustic response and porosity is inversely related, similar to what is observed in conventional carbonates (Anselmetti and Eberli, 1999). However, although the relationship has a similar trend, the acoustic response for the unconventional carbonates is significantly slower for a given porosity than would be expected based on data from conventional carbonate samples and theoretically calculated values. The reason for this is because the samples are from a mixed carbonate–siliciclastic system with a significant amount of quartz and clays in the mineral composition, and the pore architecture is predominantly micro- to nanoscale pores. The combination of these two important factors results in a slower wave propagation through the samples due to differences in the elastic properties of the samples as compared to pure carbonates (CaCO3 composition) with predominantly macro- to mesoscale pores. For additional information, please reference Vanden Berg and Grammer (2016).

SUMMARY

Three areas within the NAMC region (Oklahoma and Kansas) with cored intervals from the Mississippian stratigraphic section were analyzed to identify the variability in preserved facies, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework, pore architecture, relationship to conventional wireline log signatures, conventional laboratory measured porosity and permeability, and laboratory measured sonic velocity. Key relationships and predictable trends were identified that provide insight into enhanced prediction of primary reservoir intervals and petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability). Detailed facies analysis of five cores from within the basin highlight the variability in facies deposited with preservation of a very fine-grained mudstone with little to no skeletal material or bioturbation in outer-ramp environments, a wackestone and packstones deposited with moderate to extensive bioturbation and skeletal grains deposited in middle-ramp environments, and coarse-grained carbonate sand shoals and peritidal deposits in the inner ramp and shoreline environments. Despite the differences in facies preserved in different parts of the basin, a relative high-resolution sequence stratigraphic hierarchy is shown to be applicable throughout the study area. Wireline logs are able to be used as a 1st-order definition of 3rd-order sequences, and 4th-order sequences identified through detailed facies analysis can be used as a 1st-order approximation of intervals with relatively high porosity and permeability.

Qualitative analysis revealed a relationship between pores with a significant amount of clay mineral precipitation within the pore space and relatively low laboratory measured porosity and permeability. Conversely, intervals that have the highest laboratory measured porosity and highest permeability correlate with pores that not only have the greatest density as observed in a 2-D cross section and are relatively larger in total size but also have little to no clay mineral precipitation in the pore space.

The regression analysis was unable to generate a useful model that could be used to accurately predict key petrophysical parameters. This inability highlights the need to verify the applicability of analytical methodology that is used to interpret or define properties in samples with significantly different petrophysical features (e.g., macro- to mesoporosity vs. micro- to nanoporosity).

The laboratory measured acoustic response shows a clear inverse relationship to porosity. In comparison to pure carbonates (CaCO3) that can be approximated using the Wyllie time average equation, the mixed carbonate–siliciclastic samples have a slower, or lower, response than predicted for pure carbonates with similarly low porosity values. The primary cause of the slower acoustic response is related to the mixed mineralogy with a significant amount of quartz and clay mineralogy, as well as the effect of the micro- to nanoscale pore architecture. Both the noncarbonate mineralogy and the small-scale pore architecture combine to have a significant effect on the elastic properties of the samples, which translates into the slower acoustic response in a carbonate mudrock data set.

CONCLUSIONS

Results from this study indicate the following:

The sequence stratigraphic framework identified for three areas within the NAMC:

  1. Even without biostratigraphic data, a relative hierarchy is a key tool to predict the intervals with the best reservoir quality as determined by measured porosity and permeability values. Within a localized area, the 3rd-order sequences can be used for reliable correlations. Variability observed at the 4th-order sequence scale can be used with limited reliability to predict the intervals with the highest porosity and permeability at each specific location, but have too much variability in depositional features to correlate between well locations that are not in close proximity.

  2. Although the facies observed in different parts of the basin vary significantly from one area to another, the basic sequence stratigraphic architecture defined in one area has a high degree of similarity to the depositional architecture in other areas of the basin. Although caution is advised for correlation at a sequence scale more detailed than the 2nd-order scale across long distances, the similarity observed can be used as a foundation for defining the sequence stratigraphic hierarchy in unexplored areas of the basin.

The acoustic response measured from core plugs shows:

  1. A similar inverse relationship with porosity that can be approximated by the Wyllie time average equation is applicable to samples with predominately conventional types and laboratory measured porosity that is greater than 10%.

  2. For unconventional mudrock samples that have predominantly micro- to nanopore sizes in very fine-grained sediment and laboratory measured porosity less than 10%, there is a significant shift in the predictable inverse relationship between velocity and porosity. Observations from the data set indicate the Wyllie time average equation remain an applicable relationship; however, instead of being utilized as an approximation of the relationship it should be applied as an upper data boundary.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was supported by the Oklahoma State University Consortium: Reservoir Distribution and Characterization of the Mid-Continent Mississippian Carbonates—A Major Unconventional Resource Play, AAPG Grants-in-Aid, GSA Graduate Student Research Grant, and the Suzanne Takken Memorial Fellowship from the Oklahoma Geological Foundation. Redfork Energy, Devon Energy, and Maverick Brothers generously provided access to core and associated contracted laboratory data for use in this study. Electron microscopy (SEM) was performed at the Oklahoma State University Microscopy Laboratory. Laboratory-based sonic velocity response was measured at the University of Miami—Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (RSMAS).

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Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

Eustatic sea level curves applicable to the early Carboniferous Period: Mississippian Epoch. On-lap curves and sea-level curves provide insight into the rate of sea-level change and estimated change in water depth throughout the Mississippian. Absolute changes to water depth were basin specific and would have exaggerated or muted the identified eustatic changes based on local changes to basin geometry and rate of subsidence or adjacent uplift. Figure modified from Haq and Schutter (2008).

Figure 1.

Eustatic sea level curves applicable to the early Carboniferous Period: Mississippian Epoch. On-lap curves and sea-level curves provide insight into the rate of sea-level change and estimated change in water depth throughout the Mississippian. Absolute changes to water depth were basin specific and would have exaggerated or muted the identified eustatic changes based on local changes to basin geometry and rate of subsidence or adjacent uplift. Figure modified from Haq and Schutter (2008).

Figure 2.

The study area includes five core from three areas within the North American midcontinent area of Kansas and Oklahoma. An unconventional core with outer ramp facies is from Osage County, Oklahoma, three unconventional cores with middle to inner ramp facies are from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma. A transitional core with proximal outer ramp to shoreline and peritidal facies is from Reno County, Kansas. During the Mississippian Period, this area was located approximately 30° south of the paleo-equator and was covered by a shallow tropical epeiric sea. Regional tectonics beginning at the end of the Devonian and continuing throughout the Mississippian caused the emergence of the Nemaha Uplift, the Ozark Uplift, the Central Kansas Uplift, and the Ouachita Uplift. The same regional tectonic stress regime created a series of foreland basins including the Arkoma Basin located southeast of the areas included in the study in a paleo-dip direction.

Figure 2.

The study area includes five core from three areas within the North American midcontinent area of Kansas and Oklahoma. An unconventional core with outer ramp facies is from Osage County, Oklahoma, three unconventional cores with middle to inner ramp facies are from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma. A transitional core with proximal outer ramp to shoreline and peritidal facies is from Reno County, Kansas. During the Mississippian Period, this area was located approximately 30° south of the paleo-equator and was covered by a shallow tropical epeiric sea. Regional tectonics beginning at the end of the Devonian and continuing throughout the Mississippian caused the emergence of the Nemaha Uplift, the Ozark Uplift, the Central Kansas Uplift, and the Ouachita Uplift. The same regional tectonic stress regime created a series of foreland basins including the Arkoma Basin located southeast of the areas included in the study in a paleo-dip direction.

Figure 3.

A basic block model that represents a low-declivity ramp system is applicable to each area included in this study. The Osage County, Oklahoma, core represents deposition in an outer ramp position. The Logan and Payne county, Oklahoma, cores represent deposition in the middle to inner ramp position. The Reno County, Kansas, core represents deposition from the middle ramp position to on-shore tidal flats. Figure modified from Hanford (1986).

Figure 3.

A basic block model that represents a low-declivity ramp system is applicable to each area included in this study. The Osage County, Oklahoma, core represents deposition in an outer ramp position. The Logan and Payne county, Oklahoma, cores represent deposition in the middle to inner ramp position. The Reno County, Kansas, core represents deposition from the middle ramp position to on-shore tidal flats. Figure modified from Hanford (1986).

Figure 4.

Unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma. The unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma, is composed of predominately distal facies deposited in an outer ramp to middle ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system has 85m (278 ft) of recovered Mississippian age core. (A) There are seven facies identified based on subtle variations in texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). Although an idealized facies stacking pattern was applied to the core, the transition from Facies 1 to Facies 7 is more accurately described as a transition from a highly restricted, low-energy environment to depositional environments that have nearly normal marine circulation close to, but still beneath, storm wave base. A proximal facies, Facies 4, is interpreted to be deposited within the stratigraphic succession due to transportation from significant storm events.

Figure 4.

Unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma. The unconventional core from Osage County, Oklahoma, is composed of predominately distal facies deposited in an outer ramp to middle ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system has 85m (278 ft) of recovered Mississippian age core. (A) There are seven facies identified based on subtle variations in texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). Although an idealized facies stacking pattern was applied to the core, the transition from Facies 1 to Facies 7 is more accurately described as a transition from a highly restricted, low-energy environment to depositional environments that have nearly normal marine circulation close to, but still beneath, storm wave base. A proximal facies, Facies 4, is interpreted to be deposited within the stratigraphic succession due to transportation from significant storm events.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval near the base of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location began in the Early Mississippian Period and captures the earliest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval near the base of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location began in the Early Mississippian Period and captures the earliest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

Figure 5.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. The unconventional cores from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma are composed of predominantly proximal facies deposited in a middle to inner ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from the three locations is approximately 200m (657ft). There are five facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies were placed into an idealized facies stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

Figure 5.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. The unconventional cores from Logan and Payne counties, Oklahoma are composed of predominantly proximal facies deposited in a middle to inner ramp position on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from the three locations is approximately 200m (657ft). There are five facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facies are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies were placed into an idealized facies stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. Without biostratigraphic data the time interval represented is unknown. Due to the lack of alteration from major exposure intervals or other globally correlated features, placement within the Mississippian Period is not feasible at this time. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data. (A) Logan County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (B) (West) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (C) (East) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data.

Unconventional core from Payne County (east), Payne County (west), and Logan County, Oklahoma. Without biostratigraphic data the time interval represented is unknown. Due to the lack of alteration from major exposure intervals or other globally correlated features, placement within the Mississippian Period is not feasible at this time. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data. (A) Logan County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (B) (West) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data. (C) (East) Payne County, Oklahoma,sequence stratigraphic framework and wireline log response data.

Figure 7.

Transitional core from Reno County, Kansas. The transitional core from Reno County, Kansas, is composed of a shallowing upward sequence of deposition from a middle ramp environment to near-shore and peritidal locations on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from this location is approximately 72m(238ft). (A) There are twelve facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facie are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies are placed into an idealized stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

Figure 7.

Transitional core from Reno County, Kansas. The transitional core from Reno County, Kansas, is composed of a shallowing upward sequence of deposition from a middle ramp environment to near-shore and peritidal locations on a low-declivity ramp system. Total recovered core from this location is approximately 72m(238ft). (A) There are twelve facies identified based on visual observations of texture, composition, grain size, and level of bioturbation. Facie are named according to the Dunham Classification Scheme (1962). The facies are placed into an idealized stacking pattern that was utilized to define the sequence stratigraphic framework.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval that impacts the upper portion of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location culminated at the end of the Mississippian and captures the latest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall and hiatus between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

(B) Although the data set does not include biostratigraphic data that would allow to time constrain the core, a prominent exposure interval that impacts the upper portion of the core provides support for a theory that deposition in this location culminated at the end of the Mississippian and captures the latest globally correlated eustatic sea level fall and hiatus between the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian periods. As shown, the sequence stratigraphic framework was used to identify trends in wire line log signatures and laboratory measured petrophysical data.

Figure 8.

In each of the three areas of the basin included in this study, there is a predictable relationship between the gamma-ray log and the defined sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed black lines. There is also a predictable relationship between the relatively high values of laboratory measured porosity and permeability with the sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed blue lines. (A) Osage County, Oklahoma, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

Figure 8.

In each of the three areas of the basin included in this study, there is a predictable relationship between the gamma-ray log and the defined sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed black lines. There is also a predictable relationship between the relatively high values of laboratory measured porosity and permeability with the sequence stratigraphic framework as identified by the dashed blue lines. (A) Osage County, Oklahoma, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

B,C: Logan and Payne County, Oklahoma core. (B) West Payne County, Oklahoma, core. (C) and East Payne County, Oklahoma core.

B,C: Logan and Payne County, Oklahoma core. (B) West Payne County, Oklahoma, core. (C) and East Payne County, Oklahoma core.

(D) Logan County, Oklahoma, core. Relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

(D) Logan County, Oklahoma, core. Relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

(E) Reno County, Kansas, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

(E) Reno County, Kansas, core relationship between sequence stratigraphic framework, wire line log signature, and laboratory measured porosity and permeability.

Figure 9.

Laboratory measured acoustic response and porosity data for the areas in the study. (A) The velocity is inversely related to the porosity, similar to what has been shown to be a reliablely predictive relationship in other carbonate data sets (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999, Eberli et al. 2001). The Wyllie time average equation is an adequate approximation for this relationship for samples that have porosity >10%. For samples with <10% porosity, the Wyllie time average equation is the effective upper boundary of the data.

Figure 9.

Laboratory measured acoustic response and porosity data for the areas in the study. (A) The velocity is inversely related to the porosity, similar to what has been shown to be a reliablely predictive relationship in other carbonate data sets (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999, Eberli et al. 2001). The Wyllie time average equation is an adequate approximation for this relationship for samples that have porosity >10%. For samples with <10% porosity, the Wyllie time average equation is the effective upper boundary of the data.

(B) Closer analysis of the data with relatively low measured porosity (<10%), shows a nearly linear relationship between the velocity response and porosity.

(B) Closer analysis of the data with relatively low measured porosity (<10%), shows a nearly linear relationship between the velocity response and porosity.

Figure 10.

As shown in the three cores from Payne and Logan county (middle above), a relatively defined 3rd-order sequence can be used to identify local patterns in deposition. This can be used to further predict spatial and geometric patterns used for reservoir exploration and development. Although facies are different in other parts of the basin, the sequence stratigraphic pattern is similar and can be used for similar predictions in other areas of the basin following facies identification and correlation to log signatures.

Figure 10.

As shown in the three cores from Payne and Logan county (middle above), a relatively defined 3rd-order sequence can be used to identify local patterns in deposition. This can be used to further predict spatial and geometric patterns used for reservoir exploration and development. Although facies are different in other parts of the basin, the sequence stratigraphic pattern is similar and can be used for similar predictions in other areas of the basin following facies identification and correlation to log signatures.

Figure 11.

Modern depositional analogue. Deposition in the Persian Gulf is a modern analogue to deposition in the North American midcontinent during the Mississippian. Deposition in the Persian Gulf occurs on an attached ramp system with significant variability in facies deposited in relatively deep water transitioning to shoreline, tidal flat and restricted tidal flat lagoon environments. The facies map shows the general facies trends are strike elongate and parallel the shoreline based on water depth. Facies within this modern system are generically classified, from deepest water (brown) to most shallow water depth (yellow): carbonate mud, muddy carbonate sand and mud, bioclatic carbonate sand, and peloidal and skeletal packstones to grainstones. This facies mosaic is similar to what is observed in core used in this study when placed into generic depositional environments and facies classifications. Image modified from Wagnerand Togt, 1973.

Figure 11.

Modern depositional analogue. Deposition in the Persian Gulf is a modern analogue to deposition in the North American midcontinent during the Mississippian. Deposition in the Persian Gulf occurs on an attached ramp system with significant variability in facies deposited in relatively deep water transitioning to shoreline, tidal flat and restricted tidal flat lagoon environments. The facies map shows the general facies trends are strike elongate and parallel the shoreline based on water depth. Facies within this modern system are generically classified, from deepest water (brown) to most shallow water depth (yellow): carbonate mud, muddy carbonate sand and mud, bioclatic carbonate sand, and peloidal and skeletal packstones to grainstones. This facies mosaic is similar to what is observed in core used in this study when placed into generic depositional environments and facies classifications. Image modified from Wagnerand Togt, 1973.

Figure 12.

(A) The relationship between the acoustic response, or velocity, and measured porosity has a predictable inverse relationship. The relationship can be approximated with the Wyllie time average equation with the Woods equation presented as a useful lower boundary to the data. (B) When the data are plotted based on categories of predominant macropore type, there are data groupings observed that can be applied to enhance the predictability of the velocity-porosity relationship in carbonates that predominantly have macroporosity. Figures used with permission from G. Eberli. (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999; Eberli 2001).

Figure 12.

(A) The relationship between the acoustic response, or velocity, and measured porosity has a predictable inverse relationship. The relationship can be approximated with the Wyllie time average equation with the Woods equation presented as a useful lower boundary to the data. (B) When the data are plotted based on categories of predominant macropore type, there are data groupings observed that can be applied to enhance the predictability of the velocity-porosity relationship in carbonates that predominantly have macroporosity. Figures used with permission from G. Eberli. (Anselmetti and Eberli 1999; Eberli 2001).

Table 1.

(A) Osage County, Oklahoma Core: Unconventional Reservoir Facies

Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1MudstoneLaminated beddingCrinoidsBlackInterparticle, cementedMatrix, cemented5560.8783119.81Outer ramp below storm wave base
2Mudstone-wackestoneNodular beddingCrinoidsblack to greyInterparticle, moldic, cementedMatrix, cemented, interparticle5300.5416673135.766667Outer ramp below storm wave base
3Wackestone-packstoneMassive beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, ooids, skeletal debrisTanInterparticle, cemented, moldicCemented, interparticle, matrix5396.2766673089.29Outer ramp below storm wave base
4Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsGray and brownInterparticle, cementedMatrix, interparticle, cemented5366.9663087.438Outer to inner ramp, transported from proximal inner ramp location
5WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsBlack, brown, tan, greyInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, matrix5434.8953049.0225Distal inner ramp
6Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingSponge spiculesBlack, brownCemented, interparticleCemented, matrix, moldic, interparticle5486.9933333239.156667Proximal inner ramp
7Mudstone to WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, skeletel debrisTan, black, brownInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, moldic5532.1752980.95Restricted, muddy, lagoon
Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1MudstoneLaminated beddingCrinoidsBlackInterparticle, cementedMatrix, cemented5560.8783119.81Outer ramp below storm wave base
2Mudstone-wackestoneNodular beddingCrinoidsblack to greyInterparticle, moldic, cementedMatrix, cemented, interparticle5300.5416673135.766667Outer ramp below storm wave base
3Wackestone-packstoneMassive beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, ooids, skeletal debrisTanInterparticle, cemented, moldicCemented, interparticle, matrix5396.2766673089.29Outer ramp below storm wave base
4Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsGray and brownInterparticle, cementedMatrix, interparticle, cemented5366.9663087.438Outer to inner ramp, transported from proximal inner ramp location
5WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloidsBlack, brown, tan, greyInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, matrix5434.8953049.0225Distal inner ramp
6Skeletal-peloidal wackestoneHorizontal beddingSponge spiculesBlack, brownCemented, interparticleCemented, matrix, moldic, interparticle5486.9933333239.156667Proximal inner ramp
7Mudstone to WackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, peloids, brachiopods, skeletel debrisTan, black, brownInterparticle, cementedInterparticle, cemented, moldic5532.1752980.95Restricted, muddy, lagoon

(B) Logan County, Oklahoma and Payne County, Oklahoma Cores: Unconventional Reservoir Facies

Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Glauconitic sandstoneMassive bedded, burrowedBrachiopod fragmentsDark greenish greyn/an/an/an/aDistal outer ramp, low-energy environment below storm wave base
2Burrowed calcareous mudstone-wackestonePlanar laminations, local bioturbationBrachiopod, sponge spiculesBrownish black to greyish blackInterparticleMatrix5602.443185.86Middle ramp
3Bioturbated wackestone-packstoneBioturbated and burrowed, local thin beddingCrinoid, brachiopod fragments, sponge spiculesDusky yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle, intraparticle5406.402951.45Proximal ramp
4Peloidal packstone-grainstoneMassive bedded, bioturbatedPeloids, crinoids, sponge spicules, brachiopod fragmentsOlive greyInterparticleMatrix, intraparticle5570.183490.82Proximal ramp
5Skeletal packstone-grainstoneCross-bedded skeletal debrisCrinoid, brachiopod, bryozoan fragments, sponge spicules, peloidsMedium to dark gray and dark yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle5749.952964.71Proximal ramp, high-energy shoal, above fair weather wave base
Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Glauconitic sandstoneMassive bedded, burrowedBrachiopod fragmentsDark greenish greyn/an/an/an/aDistal outer ramp, low-energy environment below storm wave base
2Burrowed calcareous mudstone-wackestonePlanar laminations, local bioturbationBrachiopod, sponge spiculesBrownish black to greyish blackInterparticleMatrix5602.443185.86Middle ramp
3Bioturbated wackestone-packstoneBioturbated and burrowed, local thin beddingCrinoid, brachiopod fragments, sponge spiculesDusky yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle, intraparticle5406.402951.45Proximal ramp
4Peloidal packstone-grainstoneMassive bedded, bioturbatedPeloids, crinoids, sponge spicules, brachiopod fragmentsOlive greyInterparticleMatrix, intraparticle5570.183490.82Proximal ramp
5Skeletal packstone-grainstoneCross-bedded skeletal debrisCrinoid, brachiopod, bryozoan fragments, sponge spicules, peloidsMedium to dark gray and dark yellowish brownInterparticleMatrix, interparticle5749.952964.71Proximal ramp, high-energy shoal, above fair weather wave base

(C) Reno County, Kansas Core: Unconventional Reservoir to Conventional Reservoir Facies

Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Mudstone-wackestone Crinoid fragments, skeletal debrisLight grey to blackInterparticleMatrix6106.913116.11Inner ramp, below storm wave base
2Crinoidal wacketsone-packstone Crinoids, bivalvesGrey with black laminationsInterparticleMatrix5914.972962.15Inner ramp, below storm wave base
3Mudstone-peloidal/skeletal wackestone Peloids, crinoids, skeletal debrisGray and greyish greenn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
4Mudstone-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal bedding with wavy laminationsCrinoids, peloids, skeletal debrisBrown and greyInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5103.3466672628.926667Inner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
5Crinoid-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, skeletal debrisDark to light brownn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, below fair weather wave base
6Mustone-skeletal wackestoneLarge-scale cross-bedding, stacked fining upward sequencesIndeterminate skeletal debrisLight brownInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5271.8662798.766Innter ramp, above fair weather wave base
7Dolomitized mudstone-wackestoneHorizontal, laminated, wavy beddingn/aLight brown to grey-brownIntercrystallineOrganic, moldic4626.962602.268Tidal flat
8MudstoneLaminatedn/aGrey-brown, dark olive brownIntercrystallineInterparticle4196.5352349.12Tidal flat
9MudstoneWavy horizontal laminationsn/aLight olive greenInterparticleInterparticle4015.5852215Tidal flat
10Laminated MudstoneLaminatedSponge spiculesBlack and brownIntercrystallineInterparticle3771.182093.84Tidal flat
11Bioturbated MudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aLight olive brown to dark grey brownInterparticleInterparticle4123.793501.73Tidal flat
12Spiculitic mudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aRose-pink to greyish greenInterparticle, moldicInterparticle2452.642270.95Tidal flat
Facies I.D.Rock Classification (Dunham, 1962)Sedimentary StructuresEnvironmental Indicators (Trace fossils identified with MacEachern et al., 2009)ColorPrimary Pore Type (Thin Section) (Choquette and Pray, 1970)Primary Pore Type (SEM) (Choquette and Pray, 1970; Vanden Berg and Grammer, 2016)Acoustic Response (Vp)Acoustic Response (Vs)Depositional Environment
1Mudstone-wackestone Crinoid fragments, skeletal debrisLight grey to blackInterparticleMatrix6106.913116.11Inner ramp, below storm wave base
2Crinoidal wacketsone-packstone Crinoids, bivalvesGrey with black laminationsInterparticleMatrix5914.972962.15Inner ramp, below storm wave base
3Mudstone-peloidal/skeletal wackestone Peloids, crinoids, skeletal debrisGray and greyish greenn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
4Mudstone-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal bedding with wavy laminationsCrinoids, peloids, skeletal debrisBrown and greyInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5103.3466672628.926667Inner ramp, between fair weather and storm wave base
5Crinoid-skeletal wackestoneHorizontal beddingCrinoids, skeletal debrisDark to light brownn/an/an/an/aInner ramp, below fair weather wave base
6Mustone-skeletal wackestoneLarge-scale cross-bedding, stacked fining upward sequencesIndeterminate skeletal debrisLight brownInterparticleIntercrystalline, matrix5271.8662798.766Innter ramp, above fair weather wave base
7Dolomitized mudstone-wackestoneHorizontal, laminated, wavy beddingn/aLight brown to grey-brownIntercrystallineOrganic, moldic4626.962602.268Tidal flat
8MudstoneLaminatedn/aGrey-brown, dark olive brownIntercrystallineInterparticle4196.5352349.12Tidal flat
9MudstoneWavy horizontal laminationsn/aLight olive greenInterparticleInterparticle4015.5852215Tidal flat
10Laminated MudstoneLaminatedSponge spiculesBlack and brownIntercrystallineInterparticle3771.182093.84Tidal flat
11Bioturbated MudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aLight olive brown to dark grey brownInterparticleInterparticle4123.793501.73Tidal flat
12Spiculitic mudstoneHorizontal, wavy beddingn/aRose-pink to greyish greenInterparticle, moldicInterparticle2452.642270.95Tidal flat
Table 2.
  Thin SectionsIon Polished Samples Viewed with SEMAcoustic Reponse (dry)Acoustic Response (Brine Saturated)Cored Interval (m, ft.)
Osage County, OklahomaDistal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)5067933485 m, 278 ft
Logan County, OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)9436191999 m, 324 ft
Payne County (west), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)6938161458 m, 190 ft
Payne County (east), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)2237141444 m, 143 ft
Reno County, KansasProximal ramp to shoreline deposition (Transitional from unconventional to conventional reservoir)8730393470 m, 230 ft
All Cores in StudyDistal outer ramp to shoreline deposition322208181115356 m, 1165 ft
  Thin SectionsIon Polished Samples Viewed with SEMAcoustic Reponse (dry)Acoustic Response (Brine Saturated)Cored Interval (m, ft.)
Osage County, OklahomaDistal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)5067933485 m, 278 ft
Logan County, OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)9436191999 m, 324 ft
Payne County (west), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)6938161458 m, 190 ft
Payne County (east), OklahomaProximal ramp deposition (Unconventional reservoir)2237141444 m, 143 ft
Reno County, KansasProximal ramp to shoreline deposition (Transitional from unconventional to conventional reservoir)8730393470 m, 230 ft
All Cores in StudyDistal outer ramp to shoreline deposition322208181115356 m, 1165 ft

Contents

GeoRef

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