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Late diagenesis records a common history of fluid flow in sub-Permian strata in the midcontinent, where fluid inclusion Th are higher than burial temperatures and Tmice show evolving salinity. Most negative δ18Odolomite and highest Th are at the top of the Mississippian. Fluid inclusion and geochemical data point to advective fluid flow out of basins utilizing Cambrian–Ordovician–Mississippian strata as an aquifer for hydrothermal fluids. The Pennsylvanian was a leaky confining unit. This system evolved from: Stage 1 Pennsylvanian–early Permian pulsed hydrothermal migration of connate brine and gas; between Stages 1 and 2, low-temperature Permian brine reflux; Stage 2 mixing between high-temperature and low-temperature brines during the Permian; and Stage 3 large-scale migration of hydrothermal brines and oil later during the Permian or after. Stages 1–3 were the most important late processes affecting Mississippian reservoirs, and record an inverted thermal structure with most impact of hot fluids at the top of the Mississippian. Stage 4 shows radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr in calcite, supporting a transition to localized fault pumping from basement, likely driven by Laramide fault reactivation. Stage 5 is the current system, with Ozark and Front Range uplift-driven fluid flow and potential for small-scale sporadic fault pumping.

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