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Current address: Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, 66047, U.S.A.

ABSTRACT

Mississippian rocks in north-central Oklahoma were deposited on a ramp-shelf system that trended along an approximate northeast–southwest strike and that deepened to the southeast and southwest into the Arkoma and Anadarko basins. The system is bounded on the east by the Ozark uplift. Structure in this area is dominated by extensional and transverse faulting associated with the Transcontinental arch (Nemaha uplift). Shallower water (shelf) depositional settings dominate in the northern part of the study area and deepen toward the south into the Anadarko and Arkoma basins.

Sedimentary rocks on the carbonate ramp are dominated by cyclic, partially dolomitized, argillaceous mudstones interbedded with fine-grained wackestones to grainstones. Intergrain pore space is filled by bladed, isopachous, and syntaxial marine calcite cements followed by blocky calcite cements. Limestone is commonly replaced by chert with intergrain open space filled by fine crystalline quartz (chert) cement. Late diagenetic fracture, breccia, and vug (FBV) porosity are filled by calcite and less commonly, by quartz cement that displays a coarse, blocky habit.

Carbon and oxygen isotope values for limestones and replacive dolomite are consistent with precipitation from Mississippian seawater and mixed seawater–meteoric water; values for FBV-filling calcite cements indicate precipitation from evolved basinal waters. The 87Sr/86Sr values of calcite micrite, replacement dolomite, and fracture-filling calcite range from 0.7077 to 0.7112. The lower values are consistent with equilibration with Mississippian seawater through most of the study area. More radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr values for fracture-filling calcite cements in the northeast part of the study area indicate interaction with continental basement rocks or siliciclastic rocks derived from continental basement.

Two-phase (liquid plus vapor) aqueous and petroleum inclusions were observed in FBV-filling calcite and quartz cements. The aqueous inclusions have homogenization temperatures of 48°C to 156°C and salinities ranging from 0 to 25 equivalent weight % NaCl equivalent, and reflect the presence of distinct dilute and saline fluid end-members. Calculated equilibrium δ18Owater values (VSMOW) for fluids that precipitated fracture-filling calcite cements are variable, ranging from –0.3 to +14.5‰ and do not reflect a single end-member water.

Early diagenesis was dominated by seawater-involved cementation, with modification by meteoric water during sea-level low-stands. FBV-filling calcite and quartz represent a later stage of diagenesis associated with petroleum generation and migration. Formation of fractures in the Mississippian section in north-central Oklahoma likely is related to fault movement along the Nemaha ridge instigated by Ouachita tectonism during the Pennsylvanian and extending into the Permian. This timing corresponds with regional flow of saline basinal fluids associated with the orogenic activity. These fluids ascended along faults and contributed to precipitation of FBV-filling cements. Calculated δ18Owater values for calcite cement in some areas of north-central Oklahoma suggest that cement-depositing fluids approached isotopic equilibrium with the host carbonate rocks. In other areas, however, cement-depositing fluids have oxygen isotope signatures that reflect nonresident fluids whose flow was restricted to fault and fracture pathways, which did not permit isotopic equilibration with the host limestone. In particular, fracture-filling calcite veins from Osage County, with high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.710) and low δ13C values (–2.3‰ to –4.1‰), reflect fluids that retained isotopic characteristics that were derived through interaction with subjacent shale source rocks.

INTRODUCTION

Mississippian carbonate rocks in north-central Oklahoma produce petroleum from both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. The conventional plays include the Sooner trend, which consists of a group of oil fields primarily in Alfalfa, Major, Garfield, and Kingfisher counties in north-central Oklahoma (Figure 1; Harris, 1975). The productivity of this trend largely is from fracture-dominated cherty carbonates of Meramecian–Osagean age (Harris, 1975). More recent production has been from horizontal drilling in tight carbonate rocks (Milam, 2013). There have been few diagenetic studies conducted on Mississippian rocks in north-central Oklahoma and elsewhere in the region (Mazzullo et al., 2009; Shoeia, 2012; Unrast, 2012; Morris et al., 2013). More recent diagenetic studies of the Mississippian include Elmore and Haynes (2019), Goldstein et al. (2019), and Dupont and Grammer (2019). The combined effect of early and late diagenetic events on conventional and unconventional reservoirs in the region is largely unknown. This study uses petrography, fluid inclusion microthermometry, and isotope geochemistry to reconstruct the diagenetic history of these rocks, including early cementation, dolomitization and late diagenetic fracture-, vug- and breccia-filling (FBV) carbonate cementation associated with migration of basinal fluids, including petroleum, which affected the Mississippian rocks in this region.

Figure 1.

(A) Map of Oklahoma and neighboring states showing the study area (tan rectangle) and sample localities. Isopach of Mississippian strata is shown and conventional petroleum production is shown in green (oil) and red (gas). Modified from Harris (1987). (B) Structural map for the study area showing cores studied relative to faults penetrating the basement. Modified from Gay (2003a) and Darold and Holland (2015).

Figure 1.

(A) Map of Oklahoma and neighboring states showing the study area (tan rectangle) and sample localities. Isopach of Mississippian strata is shown and conventional petroleum production is shown in green (oil) and red (gas). Modified from Harris (1987). (B) Structural map for the study area showing cores studied relative to faults penetrating the basement. Modified from Gay (2003a) and Darold and Holland (2015).

GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND

The study area is located in north-central Oklahoma, straddling the Nemaha uplift (Figure 1A). The area is bounded by the Ozark uplift on the east, the Arkoma Basin to the southeast, the Anadarko Basin to the west and south, and by the Central Kansas uplift and Transcontinental arch to the north and northwest, respectively (Lane and DeKyser, 1980). During the Early and Middle Mississippian, the midcontinent of the U.S. was relatively inactive in terms of structural deformation and tectonic activity. However, during the Late Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian, tectonism associated with the Ouachita orogeny led to the development of structural features around the study area that directly affected the deposition and distribution of Mississippian carbonates (Gay, 2003a; Dupont and Grammer, 2019). The Nemaha uplift was superimposed on the earlier Proterozoic midcontinent rift, which extends north to the Keweenaw Peninsula (Serpa et al., 1989) and was formed during a regional compressional event that resulted in widespread reverse faulting in Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma (Gay, 1999; Gay, 2003a,b; Figure 1B). It is thought that this activity occurred during Late Mississippian or Early Pennsylvanian (Gay, 1999; Gay, 2003 a,b).

Mississippian rocks were deposited regionally throughout the midcontinent across the ancient Burlington Shelf (Lane, 1978; Gutschick and Sandberg, 1983). In the north-central Oklahoma study area, Mississippian deposition took place on a ramp to distally steepened ramp system extending south and west from north-central Oklahoma into the Anadarko Basin (Mazzullo et al., 2011; LeBlanc, 2014). LeBlanc (2014) suggested that the Nemaha uplift and associated faults were active during and after deposition in this system and influenced the distribution of depositional facies.

The Mississippian limestone section in the study area (Figure 2) can be described as an overall 2nd-order sequence composed of a series of higher frequency, 3rd- and 4th-order sequences that were deposited as a result of sea-level change. Sequence variability in north-central Oklahoma is thought to play a significant role in the quality and vertical heterogeneity of the Mississippian reservoirs. However, because of a lack of paleontological control, subsurface correlation of cores examined and assignment of cored intervals to specific stratigraphic units in this region is uncertain (LeBlanc, 2014).

Figure 2.

Stratigraphic section for the Mississippian of the southern midcontinent region (MERA = Meramecian; CHEST = Chesterian). Modified from Mazzullo et al. (2013).

Figure 2.

Stratigraphic section for the Mississippian of the southern midcontinent region (MERA = Meramecian; CHEST = Chesterian). Modified from Mazzullo et al. (2013).

LeBlanc (2014) studied three cores in Logan County (Adkisson 1-33 SWD), and Payne County (Elinore 1-18 SWD and Winney 1-8 SWD; Figure 1B) and identified five repeating facies in the Mississippian section in the study area. In order of interpreted decreasing water depth, these facies include: (1) glauconitic sandstone, (2) burrowed calcareous mudstone–wackestone, (3) bioturbated wackestone–packstone, (4) peloidal packstone–grainstone, and (5) skeletal packstone–grainstone. The aerial distribution of these facies strikes in a general northwesterly direction, deepens southwestwardly on the ramp, and is controlled stratigraphically by 4th- and 5th-order sea-level fluctuations (LeBlanc, 2014).

METHODS

Localities of nine cores from which samples were collected for this research are shown on Figure 1A, B. Petrographic analysis was conducted on 93 thin sections. Two cores, the Adkisson #1-33 (Logan County) and Bann #1-14 (Woods County), were selected for detailed petrographic analysis of variation in limestone lithologies related to 4th- and 5th-order cycles. Particular attention was given to FBV-filling calcite cements in all of the cores studied.

Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography was carried out using a CITL MK5-1 cathodoluminescence system mounted on an Olympus-BX51 microscope equipped with 4×, 10×, and 40× long focal distance objective lenses, and a “Q Imaging” 5-megapixel, cooled, low-light, digital camera system.

X-ray diffraction analysis of dolomite samples was performed using a computer-automated Philips Analytical PW 1830 instrument. Selected partially dolomitized samples were X-rayed from 20° to 60° 2θ with steps of 0.025° taken at 1.0 s/step. Dolomite was prepared for carbon and oxygen isotope analysis by grinding samples containing a mix of calcite and dolomite with a mortar and pestle and leaching calcite preferentially with 10% acetic acid. X-ray diffraction analysis was used to assess the purity of the dolomite samples used for stable isotope analysis.

Fluid inclusion microthermometric measurements were made using a Linkam THMSG 600 heating and cooling stage mounted on an Olympus BX41 microscope equipped with 40× and 100× long focal distance objective lenses. Homogenization (Th) and last ice-melting (Tm) temperatures have errors of ±1.0°C and ±0.3°C, respectively, based on analytical precision of measurements on synthetic fluid inclusion standards provided by Syn Flinc (see Shelton and Orville, 1980). The inclusions analyzed in this study were aqueous, two-phase, primary and secondary inclusions, using the terminology of Roedder (1984). Salinities were calculated from Tm measurements using equations from Bodnar (1992). No corrections were made for pressure as depths of burial at the time of vein filling are unknown. However, vitrinite reflectance studies of the underlying Woodford Shale (Cardott, 2012) indicate low to moderate levels of maturity regionally for the study area indicating that it is unlikely that the rocks were ever deeply buried. Primary and secondary fluid inclusions were defined using criteria discussed by Goldstein and Reynolds (1994). Petroleum inclusions were identified using UV epifluorescence.

Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions were determined for dolomite and calcite samples using a Thermo-Finnigan Delta Plus gas-source mass spectrometer at the University of Missouri. The δ13C and δ18O values (relative to VPDB) have standard errors of less than ±0.05‰, based on replicate measurements of the NBS-19 calcite reference standard, and have been corrected for reaction with 103% phosphoric acid at 70°C (Rosenbaum and Sheppard, 1986). Ratios of 87Sr/86Sr were determined using a TIMS at the University of Kansas Radiogenic Isotope Laboratory and have errors of ±0.000014 at a 95% confidence interval.

RESULTS

Petrography

Limestone lithologies and calcite cements were studied in the cores from Canadian, Osage, Logan, Payne, Blaine, Kingfisher, and Woods counties, Oklahoma (Figure 1B). LeBlanc (2014) discussed five repeating facies in shoaling-upward cycles (see Geological Background). Petrographic description of the lithologies encountered in these repeated cycles follows. Within these facies, lithologies include argillaceous pelitic to siliceous mudstones, containing scattered fossils, and fine-grained packstones and grainstones. Lithologies infrequently are replaced partially by fine to medium crystalline planar dolomite. The Perryman 2 core in Osage County (Figure 1B) is composed largely of chert breccia and partially dolomitized lime mudstone. It is rare throughout the study area to find inter- and intragrain porosity that is not completely filled by calcite cement. Vug and breccia porosity are filled by calcite and, less commonly, quartz cement.

Limestone Lithologies

Micritic limestone (including wackestone and packstone) is a dominant lithology in the Mississippian section in north-central Oklahoma. Micrite observed in these rocks consists of small crystals averaging <1 μm in size; crystal form is typically indiscernible due to the small size of the crystals. Micrite appears brownish gold to dark brown under plane polarized light (PPL) and bright orange to dull and mottled under CL. Micritic envelopes and micritization of skeletal grains, such as crinoids and brachiopod fragments, is commonly observed. Micritization is developed on all types of substrates, including all sizes and types of grains, skeletal debris, peloids, and dolomites. Intragranular pores are commonly filled with micrite; however, some intergranular porosity within dolomitized limestones remains unfilled.

Bladed and frequently isopachous calcite cements (Figure 3A–D) are observed in rocks of the skeletal grainstone and peloidal grainstone facies in Logan and Payne Counties (facies 4 and 5 of LeBlanc, 2014). The cement occurs as elongated crystals oriented perpendicular to crinoid and other skeletal fragments. The isopachous rims range from 10 to 40 μm in thickness and are about 10 μm wide. The bladed cement appears light brown under PPL, whereas under CL the cement exhibits a dark red or dull CL inner core and an orange CL outer zone, indicative of multiple generations of cement growth.

Figure 3.

(A) Grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) composed of small (<0.3 mm), micritized crinoid, brachiopod, and other skeletal grains from Logan County, Oklahoma. Blue epoxy indicates remaining intergrain porosity. Partly crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing 1st-generation bladed calcite cement followed by a 2nd generation of blocky (equant) calcite cement. (C) Close-up of calcite cement filling intergrain porosity in a skeletal grainstone from Logan County, Oklahoma. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C) showing compositional zonation in bladed calcite cement and 2nd-generation blocky calcite cement. Note single dolomite crystal at right side of image. (E) Crinoid grainstone–packstone from Woods County, Oklahoma, with open-space-filling syntaxial calcite cement. Crossed polarized light.(F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing compositionally zoned early syntaxial cement (dark orange to bright yellow) extending into 2nd-generation of zoned calcite cement (dull to bright orange).

Figure 3.

(A) Grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) composed of small (<0.3 mm), micritized crinoid, brachiopod, and other skeletal grains from Logan County, Oklahoma. Blue epoxy indicates remaining intergrain porosity. Partly crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing 1st-generation bladed calcite cement followed by a 2nd generation of blocky (equant) calcite cement. (C) Close-up of calcite cement filling intergrain porosity in a skeletal grainstone from Logan County, Oklahoma. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C) showing compositional zonation in bladed calcite cement and 2nd-generation blocky calcite cement. Note single dolomite crystal at right side of image. (E) Crinoid grainstone–packstone from Woods County, Oklahoma, with open-space-filling syntaxial calcite cement. Crossed polarized light.(F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing compositionally zoned early syntaxial cement (dark orange to bright yellow) extending into 2nd-generation of zoned calcite cement (dull to bright orange).

Zoned calcite cement (Figure 3E, F) was observed in facies 2–5 (LeBlanc, 2014) as a syntaxial overgrowth on crinoid grains (Figure 1B). Under PPL, the cement appears as subhedral tan to light gray crystals and is indistinguishable from syntaxial blocky cement described below, frequently appearing as inner zones on the same crystals. Crystals commonly range in size from 20 to 150 μm and share sharp contacts with neighboring crystals when observed in CL. This cement exhibits a pattern of rhythmically zoned, bright orange and yellow CL bands alternating with dull to non-CL bands. Correlation of individual bands is not possible throughout the section or even within individual thin sections.

Second-generation blocky (equant) calcite cement (Figure 3) occurs throughout the study area. In crinoidal grainstones and packstones, blocky calcite cement always occurs as a continuation of the early syntaxial, blocky cement when accommodation space within intergrain pores permits. Crystal size averages 50 μm and >300 μm crystals are not uncommon. Under CL, blocky cement appears as alternating zones of dull to bright orange and yellow-orange, exhibiting as many as four distinct zones. Second-generation blocky cement is most common in the skeletal grainstone facies (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014), occurring as overgrowths on crinoid fragments and filling remaining porosity following precipitation of bladed calcite cement.

Dolomite

Partial dolomitization of Mississippian strata (Figure 1B) was observed throughout the cored intervals in the Woods, Logan, and Payne counties cores and in the Perryman 2 core in Osage County, with dolomite comprising 0–22% (avg. 4%) lithology. No open-space-filling dolomite cements were observed. Dolomite is more pervasive in the Bann #1-14 core in Woods County (Figure 1B) than in other cores. Partial dolomitization was observed in all strata below 1606 m (5279 ft) in the core, ranging from 1% to 50% of the mineralogy, occurring in all limestone lithologies except skeletal packstone–grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014), which occurs only in the top 7 m (23 ft) of the core.

Dolomite occurs as replacive, micrite selective, unimodal planar-e to planar-s crystals (classification system of Sibley and Gregg, 1987) and as isolated dolomite rhombs throughout the cored section in all five facies types. Dolomite crystals display distinctive compositional zoning under CL excitation, ranging from bright to dull CL intensity (Figure 4A, B). Typically, dolomite crystals display an internal dull, irregularly shaped CL zone that appears to have undergone dissolution, followed by rhythmic, bright to dull CL zones. The CL zonation displays no correlative distinction among facies types nor with regard to stratigraphic sequence boundaries. Dolomite displays no strong preference for a particular facies type; however, it is more abundant in the peloidal packstone–grainstone (facies 4, avg. 4.95%).

Figure 4.

(A) Dolomite crystals replacing micrite in a wackestone–packstone from Logan County, Oklahoma (facies 4 of LeBlanc, 2014). Plane polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing compositional zoning in the dolomite crystals. Open space filling calcite cement (c) in the upper right field displays bright yellow CL. (C) Silicified skeletal grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) from near top of the Mississippian section. Skeletal grains are replaced by fine crystalline quartz (chert) and intergrain open space is partly filled by coarser crystalline quartz. Remaining carbonate material has been leached resulting in relatively high porosity (shown by blue epoxy). Plane polarized light. (D) Crossed polarized light photomicrograph of (C) that better shows relative crystal sizes of quartz filling skeletal grains and open-space-filling quartz cement (arrows).

Figure 4.

(A) Dolomite crystals replacing micrite in a wackestone–packstone from Logan County, Oklahoma (facies 4 of LeBlanc, 2014). Plane polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing compositional zoning in the dolomite crystals. Open space filling calcite cement (c) in the upper right field displays bright yellow CL. (C) Silicified skeletal grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) from near top of the Mississippian section. Skeletal grains are replaced by fine crystalline quartz (chert) and intergrain open space is partly filled by coarser crystalline quartz. Remaining carbonate material has been leached resulting in relatively high porosity (shown by blue epoxy). Plane polarized light. (D) Crossed polarized light photomicrograph of (C) that better shows relative crystal sizes of quartz filling skeletal grains and open-space-filling quartz cement (arrows).

Examination of X-ray diffraction patterns reveals that the dolomite-104 reflection is shifted to a larger d-spacing (lower 2θ value) than expected for ideal dolomite, indicating that the dolomite is calcian (55–56 mol % CaCO3; Lumsden, 1979). Comparison of the relative intensities of the d-105 “ordering” reflection to the d-110 reflection indicates that the dolomite is relatively well ordered (Gregg et al., 2015).

Silica

Sponge spicules were observed in all facies types, except the glaucionitic sandstone facies (facies 1 of LeBlanc, 2014). Silicification and silica cementation (Figure 4C, D) is prolific throughout the Mississippian section. The Perryman 2 core in Osage County (Figure 1B) is extensively silicified. Silica cement occurs as epigranular microcrystalline (5–20 μm) cement to megaquartz (>20 μm) crystals. Silica cement typically completely occludes intragranular pore space and is most common in the higher energy facies (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014). Microcrystaline silica typically fringes carbonate grains, whereas megaquartz fills the remaining pore space. Carbonate grains that were observed to be replaced by silica include crinoid and brachiopod fragments. Megaquartz crystals observed in vug, fracture, and breccia porosity are discussed below.

Fracture-, Breccia- and Vug (FBV)-Filling Cements

Vugs and fractures, including ptygmatic and vertical to subvertical solution-enlarged fractures, range in width from approximately 1 mm to several centimeters in the cores studied and are filled by coarse crystalline (up to cm size) blocky calcite and, less commonly, quartz crystals (Figure 5). Core samples from Payne and Logan counties, Oklahoma, contain fractures and vugs ranging in width from 0.2 mm to approximately 1.0 cm filled by calcite cement. Samples from Blaine County, Oklahoma, contain breccia fractures ranging from 0.2 mm to approximately 2.0 cm filled by calcite and infrequent quartz cements. Core samples from Osage County contain up to centimeter size fractures and open space associated with breccias that are filled by calcite and quartz cement. Calcite-filled FBV were not observed in the Bann #1-14 core in Woods County, Oklahoma. Ptygmatic fractures 1–3 mm wide were observed in cores from Osage, Payne, Kingfisher, Blaine, and Canadian counties, Oklahoma. Frequently, fractures display both vertical and ptygmatic characteristics depending on whether they cut more competent, grain-rich or more compactable, mud-rich lithologies. This transformation may occur across bedding planes of a few centimeters in thickness. Calcite cement crystals filling FBV porosity frequently display type I twinning (Burkhard, 1993). Those filling ptygmatic fractures frequently display more intense twinning, which is classified here as types I, II, and possibly III using Burkhard (1993; Figures 5E, F, 6C).

Figure 5.

(A) Breccia filled by calcite and quartz cement from Blaine County, Oklahoma. Paragenetically, calcite cement (c) is followed by large quartz crystals (q; compare to quartz cement in Figure 4D) and finally a fine-grained opaque filling (bitumen?). Crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing faint and irregular compositional zoning in calcite cement. Authigenic quartz displays no CL response. (C) Cherty mudstone with solution-enlarged vertical (channel) porosity from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Crossed polarized light. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C). Note that calcite displays faint, irregular compositional zonation. (E) Ptygmatic fracture in cherty, partly dolomitized mudstone from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Note the strong type II and III twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite. Cross polarized light. (F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing yellow–orange calcite cement filling ptygmatic fracture. Note the small (red under CL) dolomite crystals partly replacing the mudstone matrix. Opaque portion of matrix comprises Fe sulfide and organic material.

Figure 5.

(A) Breccia filled by calcite and quartz cement from Blaine County, Oklahoma. Paragenetically, calcite cement (c) is followed by large quartz crystals (q; compare to quartz cement in Figure 4D) and finally a fine-grained opaque filling (bitumen?). Crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing faint and irregular compositional zoning in calcite cement. Authigenic quartz displays no CL response. (C) Cherty mudstone with solution-enlarged vertical (channel) porosity from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Crossed polarized light. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C). Note that calcite displays faint, irregular compositional zonation. (E) Ptygmatic fracture in cherty, partly dolomitized mudstone from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Note the strong type II and III twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite. Cross polarized light. (F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing yellow–orange calcite cement filling ptygmatic fracture. Note the small (red under CL) dolomite crystals partly replacing the mudstone matrix. Opaque portion of matrix comprises Fe sulfide and organic material.

Figure 6.

(A) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia-filling calcite cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (B) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia filling quartz cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (C) Assemblage of primary petroleum-bearing inclusions in calcite cement filling a ptygmatic fracture from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma. Note the type II twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite crystals. Plane polarized light. (D) Ultraviolet photomicrograph of (C) displaying light blue to cream color fluorescence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions.

Figure 6.

(A) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia-filling calcite cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (B) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia filling quartz cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (C) Assemblage of primary petroleum-bearing inclusions in calcite cement filling a ptygmatic fracture from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma. Note the type II twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite crystals. Plane polarized light. (D) Ultraviolet photomicrograph of (C) displaying light blue to cream color fluorescence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions.

No early diagenetic cements (discussed previously) are associated with FBV open space as was observed in the Cherokee and Ozark platform areas to the east (Mohammadi et al., 2019). In the north-central Oklahoma area, only blocky calcite cements, and less commonly, quartz cements were observed filling FBV open spaces. Breccia-filling quartz crystals from Blaine County, Oklahoma (Figure 5A, B), were precipitated following fracture-filling blocky calcite cements; however, quartz crystals partially filling fractures in Osage County, Oklahoma, core formed prior to blocky calcite cements. Calcite cement filling vug and breccia porosity typically displays uniform bright orange CL or faintly zoned, bright to dull CL (Figure 5B, D). Quartz cements display no CL response (Figure 5B).

Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry

Two-phase fluid inclusions (liquid and vapor) were observed in FBV-filling blocky calcite and quartz cements in the study area (Figure 6A, B and Table 1).Fluid inclusions range in size from <5 μm up to approximately 20 μm. The majority of observed inclusions, however, were <5 μm. Groups of fluid inclusions in close proximity to one another both spatially, and temporally, are treated as fluid inclusion assemblages as shown in Table 1. No evidence of stretching of fluid inclusions, such as a systematic relationship between size and Th, was observed. The small size of many of the fractures and the presence of strain twinning in much of the calcite filling the fractures, especially in ptygmatic fractures, as well as the generally small size of most inclusions made measurement of Te (eutectic melting temperature), Th, and Tm values difficult. The small number of Te values measured range from –25.7°C to –2.1°C indicating the presence of fluids more complex than simple NaCl solutions. Values for Th and Tm were obtained for 151 aqueous fluid inclusions (Table 1). Th values range from 48 to 156°C and Tm values range from –21.1°C to 2.5°C (Table 1). Figure 7 displays data for fluid inclusions for which both Th and salinity (based on Tm) data were obtained, where salinity is expressed as wt% NaCl equivalent. Fluid inclusion microthermometry defines two distinct end-member populations of high and low salinity, whose Th values have similar ranges from 70°C to 150°C. Three higher temperature outliers may be due to stretching or necking of the fluid inclusions.

Figure 7.

Plot of fluid inclusion homogenization temperature (Th) versus calculated salinities Note that the data cluster into two distinct salinity populations.

Figure 7.

Plot of fluid inclusion homogenization temperature (Th) versus calculated salinities Note that the data cluster into two distinct salinity populations.

Microthermometric data for fluid inclusions in carbonate cements. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, Shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).

Table 1.
Microthermometric data for fluid inclusions in carbonate cements. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, Shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).
Sample IDLocationOpen space typeAssemblageLithologyTh (°C)Tm (°C)Calculated salinity (wt.% eq. NaCl)Type
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK (#1)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite142–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite142–1.93.2 
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
    Calcite131   
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
   Assemblage 2Calcite138–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite141–1.93.2 
    Calcite141–2.74.5 
    Calcite140   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
   Assemblage 3Quartz12811.715.7Primary
    Quartz128–0.71.2 
    Quartz960.71.2 
    Quartz1043.65.9 
    Quartz104   
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK (#2)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite87–2.64.3Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite117   
    Calcite –2.54.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite110–2.44.0Secondary-petroleum
   Assemblage 4Calcite106–18.821.5Secondary
   Assemblage 5Calcite115  Secondary
    Calcite115–0.30.5 
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OKVertical/shearAssemblage 1Calcite141  Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite105–1.11.9Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite48  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
   Assemblage 4Calcite111  Primary
    Calcite111   
    Calcite148   
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite130–2.54.2Primary-petroleum
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite140–2.23.7Primary
SMD 2100Osage Co., OK (#1)PtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite97–0.71.2Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite112–0.50.8Primary
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
   Assemblage 3Calcite81–0.10.2Primary
    Calcite105–0.10.2 
    Calcite84–1.52.6 
    Calcite –0.50.9 
   Assemblage 4Calcite872.5 Primary
    Calcite802.5  
    Calcite 0.3  
    Calcite105   
   Assemblage 5Calcite813.0 Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite1160.7 Primary
SMD 2102Osage Co., OK (#2)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite126–3.76.0Primary
    Calcite126–1.83.0 
    Calcite125–3.86.1 
   Assemblage 2Calcite164–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite149–1.93.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite115–21.022.8Primary
    Calcite118–19.021.7 
    Calcite –19.021.7 
    Calcite –15.419.0 
    Calcite127   
   Assemblage 4Calcite173–17.520.6Primary
    Calcite168–15.419.0 
   Assemblage 5Calcite86–23.024.3Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite122–23.024.3 
    Calcite126–21.223.1 
   Assemblage 7Calcite135–2.13.5Primary
   Assemblage 8Quartz126–21.623.4Primary
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
    Quartz101–21.623.4 
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
   Assemblage 9Quartz83–19.622.1Primary
    Quartz87–19.622.1 
    Quartz98–22.323.9 
    Quartz98–18.621.4 
    Quartz98–17.820.8 
    Quartz98–18.521.3 
   Assemblage 10Quartz122–2.03.4Primary
    Quartz123–2.94.8 
    Quartz119–1.42.4 
    Quartz113–1.42.4 
   Assemblage 11Quartz102–2.33.9Primary
    Quartz102–2.03.4 
    Quartz108–2.33.9 
    Quartz108–0.40.7 
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalAssemblage 1Calcite80  Primary-petroleum
   Assemblage 2Calcite74–8.912.7Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite74–21.123.2Primary
    Calcite78–21.123.1 
   Assemblage 4Calcite1220.7 Primary
    Calcite1111.1  
   Assemblage 5Calcite89–2.13.5Primary
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK (#3)Vertical/ptygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite83  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
   Assemblage 2Calcite156  Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite119  Primary
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage1Calcite961.4 Primary?
    Calcite1281.4  
   Assemblage 2Calcite77  Primary?
    Calcite77   
   Assemblage 3Calcite1001.0 Primary?
    Calcite88   
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
   Assemblage 4Calcite98–0.30.5Primary?
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite960.4  
   Assemblage 5Calcite901.8 Primary?
    Calcite1001.8  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite971.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
   Assemblage 6Calcite92  Primary?
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
   Assemblage 7Calcite86  Primary
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite802.3  
Sample IDLocationOpen space typeAssemblageLithologyTh (°C)Tm (°C)Calculated salinity (wt.% eq. NaCl)Type
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK (#1)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite142–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite142–1.93.2 
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
    Calcite131   
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
   Assemblage 2Calcite138–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite141–1.93.2 
    Calcite141–2.74.5 
    Calcite140   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
   Assemblage 3Quartz12811.715.7Primary
    Quartz128–0.71.2 
    Quartz960.71.2 
    Quartz1043.65.9 
    Quartz104   
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK (#2)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite87–2.64.3Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite117   
    Calcite –2.54.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite110–2.44.0Secondary-petroleum
   Assemblage 4Calcite106–18.821.5Secondary
   Assemblage 5Calcite115  Secondary
    Calcite115–0.30.5 
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OKVertical/shearAssemblage 1Calcite141  Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite105–1.11.9Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite48  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
   Assemblage 4Calcite111  Primary
    Calcite111   
    Calcite148   
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite130–2.54.2Primary-petroleum
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite140–2.23.7Primary
SMD 2100Osage Co., OK (#1)PtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite97–0.71.2Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite112–0.50.8Primary
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
   Assemblage 3Calcite81–0.10.2Primary
    Calcite105–0.10.2 
    Calcite84–1.52.6 
    Calcite –0.50.9 
   Assemblage 4Calcite872.5 Primary
    Calcite802.5  
    Calcite 0.3  
    Calcite105   
   Assemblage 5Calcite813.0 Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite1160.7 Primary
SMD 2102Osage Co., OK (#2)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite126–3.76.0Primary
    Calcite126–1.83.0 
    Calcite125–3.86.1 
   Assemblage 2Calcite164–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite149–1.93.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite115–21.022.8Primary
    Calcite118–19.021.7 
    Calcite –19.021.7 
    Calcite –15.419.0 
    Calcite127   
   Assemblage 4Calcite173–17.520.6Primary
    Calcite168–15.419.0 
   Assemblage 5Calcite86–23.024.3Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite122–23.024.3 
    Calcite126–21.223.1 
   Assemblage 7Calcite135–2.13.5Primary
   Assemblage 8Quartz126–21.623.4Primary
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
    Quartz101–21.623.4 
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
   Assemblage 9Quartz83–19.622.1Primary
    Quartz87–19.622.1 
    Quartz98–22.323.9 
    Quartz98–18.621.4 
    Quartz98–17.820.8 
    Quartz98–18.521.3 
   Assemblage 10Quartz122–2.03.4Primary
    Quartz123–2.94.8 
    Quartz119–1.42.4 
    Quartz113–1.42.4 
   Assemblage 11Quartz102–2.33.9Primary
    Quartz102–2.03.4 
    Quartz108–2.33.9 
    Quartz108–0.40.7 
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalAssemblage 1Calcite80  Primary-petroleum
   Assemblage 2Calcite74–8.912.7Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite74–21.123.2Primary
    Calcite78–21.123.1 
   Assemblage 4Calcite1220.7 Primary
    Calcite1111.1  
   Assemblage 5Calcite89–2.13.5Primary
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK (#3)Vertical/ptygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite83  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
   Assemblage 2Calcite156  Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite119  Primary
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage1Calcite961.4 Primary?
    Calcite1281.4  
   Assemblage 2Calcite77  Primary?
    Calcite77   
   Assemblage 3Calcite1001.0 Primary?
    Calcite88   
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
   Assemblage 4Calcite98–0.30.5Primary?
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite960.4  
   Assemblage 5Calcite901.8 Primary?
    Calcite1001.8  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite971.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
   Assemblage 6Calcite92  Primary?
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
   Assemblage 7Calcite86  Primary
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite802.3  

The ranges of Th values for inclusions in calcite cement filling vertical and ptygmatic fractures and breccia are similar. The distribution of fluid inclusion data is similar to that obtained from Mississippian cements on the Cherokee–Ozark platform to the east (Mohammadi et al., 2019). Calcite filling vertical fractures and breccia contains both higher and lower salinity inclusions, but ptygmatic fractures appear to contain only lower salinity inclusions (Figure 8).

Figure 8.

Values of δ18O and δ13C (per mil VPDB) for calcite and dolomite in Mississippian rocks of the north-central Oklahoma study area.

Figure 8.

Values of δ18O and δ13C (per mil VPDB) for calcite and dolomite in Mississippian rocks of the north-central Oklahoma study area.

More lower salinity inclusions were observed in this study than higher salinity inclusions (Table 1, Figure 7). A population of the lower salinity inclusions yielded Tm values above 0°C (Table 1). This superheated ice is metastable and formed due to the failure of a vapor bubble to nucleate on heating (Roedder, 1967). In cases where repeated heating and cooling did not eliminate this phenomenon, the Tm data is reported in Table 1, but the inclusions are not plotted on Figure 5. This phenomenon is not attributable to the formation and melting of hydrohalite, which was not observed in these lower salinity inclusions (Bodnar and Vityk, 1994).

Two-phase (liquid and vapor) petroleum inclusions were observed in FBV-filling calcite cements in Payne, Blaine, and Kingfisher counties as indicated by light blue to cream-colored fluorescence under ultraviolet light (Figure 6C, D). Petroleum inclusions in north-central Oklahoma appear to be more abundant than in the Cherokee and Ozark platform area and their more cream-colored fluorescence contrasts with a more light blue color of inclusions from the Cherokee–Ozark platform area.

Isotope Geochemistry

The results of carbon and oxygen isotope analysis are shown in Figure 8 and Table 2. Calcite micrite matrix has δ18O values of –7.6‰ to –1.0‰ and δ13C values of –3.5‰ to 2.3‰. The δ18O and δ13C values for planar dolomite replacing limestone range from –2.8‰ to 1.6‰ and –1.7‰ to 0.5‰, respectively. Values for δ18O and δ13C of calcite skeletal debris and early diagenetic cement in grainstones and packstones range from –3.4‰ to 2.7‰ and –5.3‰ to 0.0‰, respectively.

Table 2.

Stable isotope data for calcite cements and host rocks. Clay-sized calcite referred to calcite mud. (Calcite #1 is earlier than #2, but both are late calcite cements), (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = Shear zone, solution = solution-enlarged fracture, ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture). *R shows data from Wang et al. (this volume).

SampleLocalityOpen space typeLithologyδ13C‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VSMOW)
GS-9699-ABlaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement–0.78–6.4024.32
GS-9699-B  Pelitic micrite–3.45–1.3129.57
GS-9834-A VerticalCalcite cement #1–0.50–5.7924.95
GS-9834-B VerticalCalcite cement #2–0.18–7.3023.39
GS-9834-C  Pelitic micrite–0.96–1.0729.82
GS-9698-A BrecciaCalcite cement0.36–2.4128.44
GS-9698-B  Pelitic micrite–3.38–2.5328.31
GS-9696-A VerticalCalcite cement0.64–6.2124.52
GS-9696-B  Pelitic micrite–1.62–1.6429.23
CA-1-99336-A-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement #1–1.16–7.2523.45
CA-1-99336-A-B Vertical/shearCalcite cement #2–1.05–6.9623.74
CA-1-99336-A-C  Pelitic micrite–0.02–3.6427.17
CA-1-10071.11 PtygmaticCalcite cement1.15–7.4223.27
CA-1-9985.9 VerticalCalcite cement–1.22–6.5524.17
CA-1-10174.6  Brachiopod0.41–2.6428.20
CA-1-10208 VerticalCalcite cement0.99–7.6423.04
AM-8371-AKingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement1.82–7.3423.35
AM-8371-B  Calcite mud2.31–3.2427.58
AM-8312-A PtygmaticCalcite cement1.92–7.1923.51
AM-8312-B  Calcite mud2.07–4.9325.84
SMD-2222-ALogan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.30–5.3225.43
SMD-2222-B  Pelitic micrite1.65–3.4827.33
SMD-2223-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.45–5.3725.39
SMD-2223-B  Pelitic micrite–0.47–3.1127.71
TE15Logan Co., OK (#2)-Skeletal debris1.55–2.5128.33
TE15.D -Replacive dolomite1.58–1.7329.14
TE16 -Skeletal debris2.22–3.5827.23
TE17 -Skeletal debris2.02–3.2227.60
TE18 -Skeletal debris2.16–4.5426.24
TE19 -Skeletal debris2.35–4.0726.72
TE20 -Skeletal debris2.28–2.6128.23
TE21 -Skeletal debris2.66–3.6427.17
TE22 -Skeletal debris2.17–4.1926.60
TE23 -Skeletal debris2.33–2.8827.95
TE24 -Skeletal debris1.93–3.3327.49
TE25 -Skeletal debris0.44–4.3426.45
TE26 -Skeletal debris–0.45–3.1927.63
SMD-2100Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–4.0426.76
SMD-2102 Solution/verticalCalcite Cement–2.58–6.2124.52
SMD-2103 BrecciaCalcite Cement0.90–7.0623.64
*R-6738Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.54–6.4424.28
*R-6742 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–6.1224.61
*R-6740 PtygmaticCalcite Cement1.19–6.8323.88
*R-6744 PtygmaticCalcite Cement0.45–6.2324.50
*R-6741 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.46–6.3724.35
*R-6746 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.21–6.1424.59
*R-6739 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.24–9.2121.43
*R-6743 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.51–8.2722.39
*R-6745 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–3.40–6.6524.06
SMD-2206-APayne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmatic/shearCalcite cement2.05–4.9825.78
SMD-2206-B  Pelitic micrite1.89–7.5823.11
SMD-2208-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.02–6.0224.71
SMD-2208-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–5.1825.58
SMD-2211-A Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–2.25–4.8925.88
SMD-2211-B  Pelitic micrite1.30–3.2327.59
SMD-2213-APayne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement1.46–5.7225.02
SMD-2213-B  Pelitic micrite1.45–3.9526.85
SMD-2216-A VerticalCalcite cement–1.18–4.4526.34
SMD-2216-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–3.8526.95
SMD-2217 Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–4.88–6.0124.73
TE1Wood Co., OK-Skeletal debris–3.45–1.4829.39
TE2  Skeletal debris–0.71–5.2325.53
TE3 -Skeletal debris0.13–5.3525.40
TE4 -Skeletal debris0.20–5.1325.63
TE5 -Skeletal debris1.97–3.0727.76
TE5.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.5131.45
TE6 -Skeletal debris2.54–0.0230.90
TE7 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.7427.06
TE7.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.0230.94
TE8 -Skeletal debris2.28–3.1827.64
TE9 -Skeletal debris2.14–3.6427.17
TE9.D -Replacive dolomite2.77–0.4430.47
TE10 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.5127.30
TE11 -Skeletal debris1.91–3.9726.83
TE12 -Skeletal debris2.05–3.3227.50
TE13 -Skeletal debris2.08–3.9826.82
TE14 -Skeletal debris2.32–2.9927.84
SampleLocalityOpen space typeLithologyδ13C‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VSMOW)
GS-9699-ABlaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement–0.78–6.4024.32
GS-9699-B  Pelitic micrite–3.45–1.3129.57
GS-9834-A VerticalCalcite cement #1–0.50–5.7924.95
GS-9834-B VerticalCalcite cement #2–0.18–7.3023.39
GS-9834-C  Pelitic micrite–0.96–1.0729.82
GS-9698-A BrecciaCalcite cement0.36–2.4128.44
GS-9698-B  Pelitic micrite–3.38–2.5328.31
GS-9696-A VerticalCalcite cement0.64–6.2124.52
GS-9696-B  Pelitic micrite–1.62–1.6429.23
CA-1-99336-A-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement #1–1.16–7.2523.45
CA-1-99336-A-B Vertical/shearCalcite cement #2–1.05–6.9623.74
CA-1-99336-A-C  Pelitic micrite–0.02–3.6427.17
CA-1-10071.11 PtygmaticCalcite cement1.15–7.4223.27
CA-1-9985.9 VerticalCalcite cement–1.22–6.5524.17
CA-1-10174.6  Brachiopod0.41–2.6428.20
CA-1-10208 VerticalCalcite cement0.99–7.6423.04
AM-8371-AKingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement1.82–7.3423.35
AM-8371-B  Calcite mud2.31–3.2427.58
AM-8312-A PtygmaticCalcite cement1.92–7.1923.51
AM-8312-B  Calcite mud2.07–4.9325.84
SMD-2222-ALogan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.30–5.3225.43
SMD-2222-B  Pelitic micrite1.65–3.4827.33
SMD-2223-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.45–5.3725.39
SMD-2223-B  Pelitic micrite–0.47–3.1127.71
TE15Logan Co., OK (#2)-Skeletal debris1.55–2.5128.33
TE15.D -Replacive dolomite1.58–1.7329.14
TE16 -Skeletal debris2.22–3.5827.23
TE17 -Skeletal debris2.02–3.2227.60
TE18 -Skeletal debris2.16–4.5426.24
TE19 -Skeletal debris2.35–4.0726.72
TE20 -Skeletal debris2.28–2.6128.23
TE21 -Skeletal debris2.66–3.6427.17
TE22 -Skeletal debris2.17–4.1926.60
TE23 -Skeletal debris2.33–2.8827.95
TE24 -Skeletal debris1.93–3.3327.49
TE25 -Skeletal debris0.44–4.3426.45
TE26 -Skeletal debris–0.45–3.1927.63
SMD-2100Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–4.0426.76
SMD-2102 Solution/verticalCalcite Cement–2.58–6.2124.52
SMD-2103 BrecciaCalcite Cement0.90–7.0623.64
*R-6738Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.54–6.4424.28
*R-6742 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–6.1224.61
*R-6740 PtygmaticCalcite Cement1.19–6.8323.88
*R-6744 PtygmaticCalcite Cement0.45–6.2324.50
*R-6741 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.46–6.3724.35
*R-6746 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.21–6.1424.59
*R-6739 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.24–9.2121.43
*R-6743 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.51–8.2722.39
*R-6745 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–3.40–6.6524.06
SMD-2206-APayne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmatic/shearCalcite cement2.05–4.9825.78
SMD-2206-B  Pelitic micrite1.89–7.5823.11
SMD-2208-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.02–6.0224.71
SMD-2208-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–5.1825.58
SMD-2211-A Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–2.25–4.8925.88
SMD-2211-B  Pelitic micrite1.30–3.2327.59
SMD-2213-APayne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement1.46–5.7225.02
SMD-2213-B  Pelitic micrite1.45–3.9526.85
SMD-2216-A VerticalCalcite cement–1.18–4.4526.34
SMD-2216-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–3.8526.95
SMD-2217 Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–4.88–6.0124.73
TE1Wood Co., OK-Skeletal debris–3.45–1.4829.39
TE2  Skeletal debris–0.71–5.2325.53
TE3 -Skeletal debris0.13–5.3525.40
TE4 -Skeletal debris0.20–5.1325.63
TE5 -Skeletal debris1.97–3.0727.76
TE5.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.5131.45
TE6 -Skeletal debris2.54–0.0230.90
TE7 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.7427.06
TE7.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.0230.94
TE8 -Skeletal debris2.28–3.1827.64
TE9 -Skeletal debris2.14–3.6427.17
TE9.D -Replacive dolomite2.77–0.4430.47
TE10 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.5127.30
TE11 -Skeletal debris1.91–3.9726.83
TE12 -Skeletal debris2.05–3.3227.50
TE13 -Skeletal debris2.08–3.9826.82
TE14 -Skeletal debris2.32–2.9927.84

Vertical fractures, ptygmatic fractures, and breccia-filling calcite cements have δ18O values that range from –9.2‰ to –2.4‰ and δ13C values ranging from –7.1‰ to 2.4‰. The data are distributed into two distinct clusters based on δ13C values. The first cluster, comprises most of the data for vertical fractures, breccia and about half of the ptygmatic calcite values, displays δ18O values ranging from –9.2‰ to –4.4‰ and δ13C values of –1.2‰ to 2.8‰. The second cluster, comprises mainly calcite-filled ptygmatic fractures, has δ18O values of –7.0‰ to –4.0‰ and δ13C values of –7.1‰ to –2.3‰ (Figure 8).

Ratios of 87Sr/86Sr for carbonates in the study area are listed in Table 3 and plotted against δ18O and δ13C values in Figure 9. The 87Sr/86Sr values for calcite micrite in the study area range from 0.70778 to 0.70821 and a single dolomite sample has a value of 0.70782. Calcite cements filling vertical, ptygmatic, breccia, and solution-widened fractures have values from 0.70780 to 0.70820. Four samples of fracture-filling calcite cement from Osage County, Oklahoma, have higher 87Sr/86Sr values, from 0.71023 to 0.71124; these samples also have lower δ13C values, from –4.1‰ to –2.3‰ (Figure 9B).

Figure 9.

(A) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ18O values for calcite samples of the study area. (B) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ13C values for calcite samples of the study area. Values for calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures in Osage County are courtesy of G. M. Grammer.

Figure 9.

(A) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ18O values for calcite samples of the study area. (B) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ13C values for calcite samples of the study area. Values for calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures in Osage County are courtesy of G. M. Grammer.

Sr and oxygen isotope data (‰) for carbonate components in rocks of the study area. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).

Table 3.
Sr and oxygen isotope data (‰) for carbonate components in rocks of the study area. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).
SampleLocationOpen space typelithology87Sr/86Srδ18O (VPDB)δ13C (VPDB)
GS-9699Blaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement0.707812–6.40–0.78
CA-1-99336-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement0.707868–6.96–1.05
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.707898–7.341.82
AM-8371  Calcite mud0.708210–3.242.31
SMD-2222Logan Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.707801–5.321.30
SMD-2222  Pelitic micrite0.707785–3.481.65
SMD-2102Osage Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.711238–6.21–2.58
BB-3170Osage Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.710229–6.12–2.58
BB-3406 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711198–6.14–4.21
BB-3407 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711080–6.65–3.4
SMD-2211Payne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement0.708203–4.89–2.25
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement0.708055–4.45–1.18
SMD-2216  Pelitic micrite0.707981–3.851.21
Bann-5274Wood Co., OK-Replacive dolomite0.7078200.512.87
SampleLocationOpen space typelithology87Sr/86Srδ18O (VPDB)δ13C (VPDB)
GS-9699Blaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement0.707812–6.40–0.78
CA-1-99336-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement0.707868–6.96–1.05
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.707898–7.341.82
AM-8371  Calcite mud0.708210–3.242.31
SMD-2222Logan Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.707801–5.321.30
SMD-2222  Pelitic micrite0.707785–3.481.65
SMD-2102Osage Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.711238–6.21–2.58
BB-3170Osage Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.710229–6.12–2.58
BB-3406 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711198–6.14–4.21
BB-3407 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711080–6.65–3.4
SMD-2211Payne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement0.708203–4.89–2.25
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement0.708055–4.45–1.18
SMD-2216  Pelitic micrite0.707981–3.851.21
Bann-5274Wood Co., OK-Replacive dolomite0.7078200.512.87

DISCUSSION

Major diagenetic events affecting the Mississippian strata are shown in Figure 10 and can be subdivided into major stages: (1) early diagenetic (marine and meteoric) and (2) late diagenesis. The paragenetic sequence indicates at least three major events of porosity-reducing cementation: early calcite cementation, silicification, and late calcite and quartz cementation (Figure 10).

Figure 10.

Paragenetic sequence for diagenetic events in north-central Oklahoma. The dashed lines indicate uncertain timing.

Figure 10.

Paragenetic sequence for diagenetic events in north-central Oklahoma. The dashed lines indicate uncertain timing.

EARLY DIAGENESIS

Calcite Cementation

Neomorphism of lime mud to micrite and micritization of fossil grains (Bathurst, 1975) likely began soon after deposition of carbonate sediments in the north–central Oklahoma study area. Bladed and isopachous calcite cement (Figure 3B, D), when present, occurs as the earliest cement type, as observed by its position proximal to skeletal grains. Fringing bladed and isopachous cements typically are precipitated early in the diagenetic process by marine water (Scholle and Ulmer-Scholle, 2003). The bladed cement shares similar patterns of CL zones with the initial syntaxial cements on crinoid grains (Figure 3D, F). Therefore, these cements likely precipitated under the same marine diagenetic conditions. Remaining porosity is filled by blocky (equant) calcite cement. This cement exhibits a pattern of rhythmically zoned, bright orange and yellow CL bands alternating with dull to non-CL bands. Correlation of individual bands is not possible throughout the section or even within individual thin sections. Rhythmic CL banding observed in calcite cements likely is due to an oscillatory uptake of trace elements during calcite crystal growth (Merino, 1984; Gregg, 1988).

In the Cherokee–Ozark platform area, bladed calcite cement and early zones of syntaxial cement are interpreted, on the basis of fabric and isotope geochemistry, to be marine in origin. Blocky calcite cement was interpreted, on the same basis, to have been precipitated by mixed marine and meteoric water (Morris et al., 2013; Unrast, 2013; Mohammadi et al., 2019). The meteoric water influence likely occurred during falls in sea level in north–central Oklahoma (LeBlanc, 2014).

Carbon and oxygen isotope values (Figure 8) of calcite mud (micrite) and whole-rock samples of grainstone and packstone (comprise largely skeletal debris and intergrain calcite cement) plot largely within the range of published values for calcite precipitated in equilibrium with Mississippian seawater (Mii et al., 1999), and extend to slightly lower δ18O values. This pattern is consistent with diagenesis in which seawater mixed with meteoric water in the phreatic zone (Morris et al., 2013). Most of the micrite and skeletal grainstone–packstone samples plot within the range of δ13C values expected for Mississippian seawater. Three samples that have δ13C values more negative than the Mississippian seawater field (as low as –3.2‰; Figure 8) may have been precipitated by marine phreatic water influenced by oxidation of low-δ13C organic matter or by microbial sulfate reduction.

It would be expected that episodes of calcite cementation would vary with each cycle of sea-level rise and fall, displaying repeated marine and meteoric cement zones. This was not observed in the present study; samples of early diagenetic calcite cement display remarkable uniformity under CL regardless of where in the stratigraphic section they were collected. This can be interpreted to indicate that only the marine cements are syndepositional and no meteoric water entered the system until post-Mississippian time when the later blocky calcite cement was precipitated. Alternatively, and more likely, each repeated marine–meteoric cement episode associated with 3rd- and 4th-order sea-level rise and fall is so similar that variation in cement patterns cannot be detected. If the latter is true, then original intergrain porosity in the grainstone and packstone (facies 3–5 of LeBlanc, 2014) was largely filled in each cycle prior to the beginning of the next sea level cycle. Were this not the case, multiple generations of blocky calcite cement would be observed lower in the section and fewer in the upper part of the section. This contrasts with the observation in Mississippian strata in the Cherokee–Ozark platform area to the east in which original porosity persisted well into the period of petroleum migration (Mohammadi et al., 2019).

Dolomitization

Replacement dolomite is interpreted to have formed early, under marine phreatic conditions, in equilibrium with Mississippian seawater. Carbon and oxygen isotope values for dolomite samples (Figure 8) are consistent with precipitation from Mississippian seawater (Mii et al., 1999) when the difference in 18O fractionation between calcite and dolomite is considered (Friedman and O’Neil, 1977; Land, 1980). Micrite replacive dolomite is slightly more abundant in the finer grained, muddy facies. Micrite is likely favored for dolomitization because the high surface area of lime mud sediment provides numerous active sites for nucleation (Sibley and Gregg, 1987). The exact timing and duration of dolomitization with respect to micritization is difficult to determine. However, dolomitization of Mississippian sediments likely occurred concurrent with or shortly after micritization and continued through early diagenesis. Observation of micritic inclusions within dolomite rhombs supports this interpretation.

The variable range in dolomite crystal size and highly variable CL zonation suggest that dolomitization was a multistage process. The CL zoning pattern observed in dolomite likely is caused by subtle variations in the oxidation state of the pore waters over time, causing variation in the uptake of trace Fe2+ and Mn2+. Similar CL zonation observed in Mississippian, Burlington–Keokuk rocks were also attributed to secular changes in oxidation state during early diagenesis (Meyers, 1991). The lack of any quenched (totally non-CL) zones in the dolomite indicates that the FeCO3 content of dolomite never exceeds 3 or 4 mole percent (Machel et al., 1991). Corroded CL contacts commonly observed in dolomite crystals from north–central Oklahoma indicate that at some point, pore waters became undersaturated with respect to dolomite. Preservation of fine-scale CL zonation in dolomite crystals (Figure 4B) suggests that little or no dolomite recrystallization occurred during later diagenetic periods (Figure 10).

Silicification and Chert Cements

Although silicification was not a topic of this study, a few words can be said on the basis of earlier work by other researchers. Silica cementation and silicification of grains occurs mostly in the higher energy facies (facies 4 and 5 of LeBlanc, 2014). Silica cementation (Figure 6C, D) is particularly abundant at the top of the Bann #1-14 core (Woods County, Oklahoma) and the Perryman 2 core (Osage County, Oklahoma), coinciding with widespread subaerial exposure at the end of the Mississippian (Haq and Schutter, 2008). Meteoric diagenetic alteration of sponge spicules associated with this exposure event has been used to explain the formation of the highly productive “chat” reservoirs of the Mississippian (Montgomery et al., 1998; Rogers, 2001; Watney et al., 2001).

LATE DIAGENESIS

Blocky calcite and infrequent quartz cements filling fracture, breccia, and vug (FBV) porosity are interpreted as late diagenetic cements in the north-central Oklahoma study area (Figure 10). No evidence of early marine and shallow phreatic cements, as discussed above, was observed in the FBV porosity. Therefore, these features likely postdate the early cements. An example of late diagenetic cement filling intergrain and intragrain porosity in Osage County (Blackbird #4-33 core; Figure 1B) is discussed in Mohammadi et al. (2019).

Uniform to faintly zoned CL of FBV-filling blocky calcite cements (Figure 5B, D) indicates preservation of subtle changes in water chemistry, suggesting a late diagenetic origin. This contrasts with sharp CL contacts, observed in the early diagenetic cements that are interpreted as abrupt changes associated with fluctuation between marine and meteoric waters (Banner et al., 1988). The CL signature of the FBV-filling cements corresponds to what was observed in late diagenetic cements in the Cherokee–Ozark platform region to the east of the present study area (Mohammadi et al., 2019) suggesting a similar origin. Authigenic quartz cement is observed infrequently; it precipitated both prior and subsequent to stages of calcite cementation.

Several lines of geochemical evidence attest to a late diagenetic origin of FBV-filling calcite cements. Elevated Th values of primary fluid inclusions in calcite cements filling FBV open spaces (Figure 5A, B) indicate that these cements were precipitated by warm fluids (about 70–175°C) during later stages of diagenesis. Salinity and temperature of the fluids in the north-central Oklahoma study area are similar to those of the Cherokee–Ozark platform study area to the east (Mohammadi et al., 2019). Both saline and dilute aqueous fluids, as well as abundant petroleum inclusions, were observed (Figure 5A, B). The trapping of petroleum inclusions is consistent with a late diagenetic origin of these calcite cements.

Relatively low δ18O values (about –4.5‰ to –7.5‰; Figure 8) obtained for FBV-filling calcite cements suggest precipitation from meteoric water or, more likely, precipitation by late diagenetic basinal water, considering the fluid inclusion evidence discussed previously. Some of the cements display both lower δ18O and lower δ13C values that are consistent with oxidation of organic carbon, possible concomitant with sulfate reduction associated with petroleum generation (Figure 8; Machel et al., 1995). High 87Sr/86Sr values (>0.710) for fracture-filling calcite cement in Osage County (Figure 1B) may indicate fluid interaction with continental basement or sedimentary rocks derived from basement, such as arkose or shales (Burke et al., 1982).

Relationship of Fracturing to Cementation

Fractures in the study area formed initially as vertical to subvertical fractures and frequently underwent solution widening prior to cementation and deformation into ptygmatic veins during sediment compaction. Vertical fractures were observed transforming to ptygmatic veins (Figure 5E, F) over a scale of a few centimeters depending on the lithology of the surrounding rock. More grain-rich beds are less compactable and typically host vertical fractures, whereas more argillaceous beds are more compactable and tend to host ptygmatically deformed veins.

Cementation of ptygmatic veins likely occurred when they formed initially as vertical fractures and they deformed subsequently with compaction. Straining of calcite crystals during compaction is shown by strong twinning of calcite cement in the ptygmatic veins compared to weaker twinning of calcite cement in adjacent vertical fractures. Strong twinning (type II and III twins as defined by Burkhard, 1993 and Ferrill et al., 2004) of the calcite crystals observed in ptygmatic veins likely occurred due to strain introduced during compaction. Less intense type I twinning is common in cements filling vertical and subvertical fractures and type I twinning is less common in vugs- and breccia-filling calcite cements. There is no evidence, though, that calcite cement in ptygmatic fractures underwent recrystallization, which would have eliminated strain-induced features such as twinning. At least some primary aqueous and petroleum inclusions survived deformation (Figure 6C, D). If calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures had undergone dissolution–recrystallization during compaction and deformation, any fluid inclusions present initially would have been destroyed. However, only low-salinity, aqueous fluids were observed in calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures. This does not necessarily mean that only dilute fluids precipitated calcite filling ptygmatic fractures, as saline aqueous inclusions were observed in associated vertical fractures. It is possible that saline inclusions, though present, were not observed. Successful measurement of Tm values in ptygmatic fractures was infrequent because strong twinning made observations difficult. More likely, higher salinity inclusions, formed prior to deformation, may have been destroyed during deformation. Abundant petroleum inclusions were observed in calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures using UV fluorescence (Figure 6C, D), as they were in late diagenetic calcite cements filling vertical and subvertical fractures (Figure 10). Carbon, oxygen, and Sr isotope values of ptygmatic fracture-filling calcite overlap with those of calcite filling other FVB porosity (Figures 8, 9).

Timing of Fracturing and Cementation

The most intensive period of fracturing of Mississippian rocks in north–central Oklahoma likely accompanied fault movement along the Nemaha uplift during the Ouachita orogeny to the south and the main Appalachian orogeny to the east (Figure 1). The timing of this fault movement was Pennsylvanian continuing into the Permian (Gay, 2003a). Late diagenetic solution widening and cementation in FBV open space likely occurred contemporaneous with or soon after fracture formation; otherwise the fractures would have closed with continuing compaction. Fluid inclusion and isotope studies on underlying Cambrian and Ordovician carbonates in the Ozark region indicate that those strata are a potential source of saline brines (Shelton et al., 1992, 2009; Temple, 2016). The consensus of opinion concerning fluid flow on the southern midcontinent (e.g., Gregg, 1985; Leach & Rowan, 1986; Gregg & Shelton, 1989; Bethke & Marshak, 1990; Newell, 1997; Appold & Garven, 1999; Appold & Nunn, 2005; Gregg and Shelton, 2012) is that regional flow of basinal brines was associated with the Pennsylvanian–Permian Ouachita orogeny and involved fluid movement northward, through deep Cambrian–Ordovician and basement aquifers. The large number of petroleum inclusions associated with aqueous inclusions, observed in all late diagenetic cements in this study, indicates that cementation occurred during generation and migration of petroleum, which likely was derived from the underlying Woodford Shale (Cardott, 2012).

ORIGIN OF LATE DIAGENETIC FLUIDS

Figure 11 and Table 4 show calculated δ18O water values for FBV-filling calcite cements in north–central Oklahoma. The δ18O values (standard mean ocean water, SMOW) for waters that precipitated calcite cement and waters in equilibrium with host limestone were calculated using the equation of O’Neil et al. (1969) for calcite-water fractionation, utilizing measured isotope values and temperatures based on Th values of fluid inclusions. Values were calculated to determine whether the fluids depositing calcite cement are in isotopic equilibrium with host rock limestone at the temperatures of cement deposition or, instead, reflect the influence of nonresident fluids that retained their source-derived oxygen isotope compositions (see Shelton et al., 2011).

Figure 11.

Calculated δ18O water values in equilibrium with calcite and host limestone using temperature ranges determined from fluid inclusion Th values. Fractionation equations employed are from O’Neil et al. (1969).

Figure 11.

Calculated δ18O water values in equilibrium with calcite and host limestone using temperature ranges determined from fluid inclusion Th values. Fractionation equations employed are from O’Neil et al. (1969).

Th values of fluid inclusions, δ18O values of carbonate cements and calculated δ18O values of calculated waters in equilibrium widr these cements and their host rocks at the temperatures shown. The fractionation equation used for calcite is O'Neil, et al. (1969). The mean δ18O values (VSMOW) for the host limestone in the study area is 27.4‰. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = Shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).

Table 4.
Th values of fluid inclusions, δ18O values of carbonate cements and calculated δ18O values of calculated waters in equilibrium widr these cements and their host rocks at the temperatures shown. The fractionation equation used for calcite is O'Neil, et al. (1969). The mean δ18O values (VSMOW) for the host limestone in the study area is 27.4‰. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = Shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).
SampleLocation and Host CementOpen space typeTh °Cδ18O calite‰ VSMOWδ18O cement-depositing water‰ VSMOWδ18O water for Limestone‰ VSMOW
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia131 to 14224.310.12 to 11.3213.2 to 14.4
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia87 to 11728.49.94 to 12.948.9 to 11.9
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OK, CalciteVertical/shear47, 104 to 14723.7–0.26, 7.24 to 10.743.4, 10.9 to 14.4
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OK, CalcitePtygmatic13023.38.8512.9
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK, CalciteSolution/vertical14025.411.913.9
SMD2100Osage Co., OK #1, CalcitePtygmatic80 to 12026.87.3 to 11.88.7 to 13.1
SMD2102Osage Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical115, 135, 149,17324.59.0 to 11.0, 11.9 to 13.512.6 to 14.6, 15.5 to 17.1
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical74 to 12226.36.84 to 11.547.9 to 12.6
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical/ptygmatic8324.76.238.9
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical77 to 11224.74.71 to 8.717.4 to 11.4
SampleLocation and Host CementOpen space typeTh °Cδ18O calite‰ VSMOWδ18O cement-depositing water‰ VSMOWδ18O water for Limestone‰ VSMOW
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia131 to 14224.310.12 to 11.3213.2 to 14.4
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia87 to 11728.49.94 to 12.948.9 to 11.9
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OK, CalciteVertical/shear47, 104 to 14723.7–0.26, 7.24 to 10.743.4, 10.9 to 14.4
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OK, CalcitePtygmatic13023.38.8512.9
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK, CalciteSolution/vertical14025.411.913.9
SMD2100Osage Co., OK #1, CalcitePtygmatic80 to 12026.87.3 to 11.88.7 to 13.1
SMD2102Osage Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical115, 135, 149,17324.59.0 to 11.0, 11.9 to 13.512.6 to 14.6, 15.5 to 17.1
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical74 to 12226.36.84 to 11.547.9 to 12.6
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical/ptygmatic8324.76.238.9
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical77 to 11224.74.71 to 8.717.4 to 11.4

Overlapping δ18O water values for carbonate cements and host limestone in Osage, Payne, and Blaine counties, Oklahoma (Figure 11), indicate that cement-depositing fluids in these areas approached isotopic equilibrium with local carbonate rocks. The overlap of values in these cases may represent equilibration of nonresident fluids with the hosting carbonate and/or mixing between resident and nonresident fluids, in a system dominated by the resident fluids in equilibrium with the host limestone. This is in contrast with values from some areas in north-central Oklahoma (e.g., Canadian and Osage counties; Figure 11) and most values calculated for calcite and dolomite cements in the Cherokee–Ozark platform area to the east of the north-central Oklahoma study area. In those areas, the δ18O water values calculated for calcite cement-depositing waters reflect nonresident fluids that did not equilibrate isotopically with the host limestone (Mohammadi et al., 2019).

Carbonate lithologies of Mississippian rocks in the Cherokee–Ozark platform area are mostly grainstone, packstone, and wackestone. Late diagnetic calcite cements frequently were observed as filling intergrain porosity in these rocks, as well as filling fractures and breccia (Mohammadi et al., 2019). In contrast, late diagenetic cements were observed only as fracture, breccia, and infrequent vug-filling cements in the north-central Oklahoma study area. This likely is because the lithologies observed in the present study area are composed largely of wackestone and mudstones (deeper water facies) and their low initial amounts of intergrain porosity are filled dominantly by early marine cements. Therefore, very little intergrain porosity remained to accommodate late diagenetic cements. Early cementation of relatively tight lithologies may have had the effect of limiting the total fluid flux during later diagenesis in the Mississippian of north-central Oklahoma, creating a more rock-dominated system than that which existed in the Cherokee–Ozark platform region.

There also is a much thicker intervening section between the Ordovician and Mississippian sections in north–central Oklahoma than in the Cherokee–Ozark platform region, consisting largely of the Devonian Woodford Shale and underlying Silurian carbonates (Shelton and Gerken, 1995; Mohammadi et al., 2019). Reaction with these rocks may have affected the composition of the ascending fluids during their migration along the faults. The thick shale section underlying the Mississippian in north–central Oklahoma likely affected fluids moving upward from the underlying Ordovician by contributing additional saline fluids along with petroleum.

Low 87Sr/86Sr values of FBV-filling cement (Figure 9) suggest either a Mississippian source for fluids or a system dominated isotopically by the hosting Mississippian carbonate rocks. An exception is calcite cement from Osage County, Oklahoma, which has higher 87Sr/86Sr values (>0.710; Figure 8). This apparent anomaly may indicate: (1) fluid with a basement strontium isotope signature that moved along faults with limited interaction with host lithologies or mixing with resident fluids or (2) similar fault-controlled fluids that interacted with subjacent shale with a continental basement strontium isotope signature. We favor the latter interpretation because the fracture-filling calcite veins with high 87Sr/86Sr values also have the lowest δ13C values (–4.1 to –2.3‰) measured in our study, which may reflect oxidation of organic matter derived from shale source rocks (Figure 9B).

CONCLUSIONS

Early calcite cements were precipitated by marine water soon after deposition and by mixed marine and meteoric water during shallow phreatic diagenesis. Early diagenetic calcite cements largely filled intergrain porosity prior to burial. Dolomite partially replaces micritic components of limestones. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of dolomite indicate that it most likely was precipitated by unmodified seawater during early diagenesis.

Late diagenetic calcite and quartz cement was observed filling fractures, breccias, and vugs (FBV) in Mississippian limestones in north-central Oklahoma. High Th values (70°C–175°C) of fluid inclusions and lower δ18O values (–9.2‰ to –4‰) of calcite cements indicate that they were precipitated by warm basinal fluids during later stages of diagenesis. Low δ13C values of some calcite cements indicate a component of oxidized organic carbon, possibly concomitant with sulfate reduction associated with petroleum migration. Fluid inclusion microthermometry of FBV-filling calcite and quartz cements indicates two distinct end-members fluids based on salinity, a dilute to moderately saline (0–6 Wt.% NaCl) fluid, and a high salinity fluid (18–25 Wt.% NaCl).

Formation of fractures in the Mississippian section in north-central Oklahoma likely is related to fault movement along the Nemaha ridge instigated by Ouachita tectonism during the Pennsylvanian and extending into the Permian. This timing corresponds with regional flow of saline basinal fluids associated with the orogenic activity. These fluids ascended along faults and contributed to precipitation of FBV-filling cements. Calculated δ18Owater values indicate that fluids precipitating fracture- and breccia-filling cements in some areas approached isotopic equilibrium with the host carbonate rocks. In other areas, however, cement-depositing fluids have oxygen isotope signatures that reflect nonresident fluids whose flow was restricted to fault and fracture pathways, which did not permit isotopic equilibration with the host limestone. In particular, fracture-filling calcite veins from Osage County, with high 87Sr/86Sr (>0.710) and low δ13C values (–4.1‰ to –2.3‰), reflect fluids that retained isotopic characteristics that were derived through interaction with subjacent shale source rocks.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by the Oklahoma State University–Industry Mississippian Consortium and the Boone Pickens School of Geology. We thank all of the companies that supported this Consortium. Also, thanks is given to the National Association of Black Geoscientists (NABG) for financial support for SM and AAPG for partial support for TAE during this study. We thank G. Michael Grammer, Jeffrey White, Martin Appold, Robert Goldstein, Gordon MacLeod, and Abbas Seyedolali for their valuable comments and suggestions. We thank Alanna Jurges and one anonymous reviewer for evaluating of this paper in manuscript form.

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, p.
85
113
.

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

(A) Map of Oklahoma and neighboring states showing the study area (tan rectangle) and sample localities. Isopach of Mississippian strata is shown and conventional petroleum production is shown in green (oil) and red (gas). Modified from Harris (1987). (B) Structural map for the study area showing cores studied relative to faults penetrating the basement. Modified from Gay (2003a) and Darold and Holland (2015).

Figure 1.

(A) Map of Oklahoma and neighboring states showing the study area (tan rectangle) and sample localities. Isopach of Mississippian strata is shown and conventional petroleum production is shown in green (oil) and red (gas). Modified from Harris (1987). (B) Structural map for the study area showing cores studied relative to faults penetrating the basement. Modified from Gay (2003a) and Darold and Holland (2015).

Figure 2.

Stratigraphic section for the Mississippian of the southern midcontinent region (MERA = Meramecian; CHEST = Chesterian). Modified from Mazzullo et al. (2013).

Figure 2.

Stratigraphic section for the Mississippian of the southern midcontinent region (MERA = Meramecian; CHEST = Chesterian). Modified from Mazzullo et al. (2013).

Figure 3.

(A) Grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) composed of small (<0.3 mm), micritized crinoid, brachiopod, and other skeletal grains from Logan County, Oklahoma. Blue epoxy indicates remaining intergrain porosity. Partly crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing 1st-generation bladed calcite cement followed by a 2nd generation of blocky (equant) calcite cement. (C) Close-up of calcite cement filling intergrain porosity in a skeletal grainstone from Logan County, Oklahoma. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C) showing compositional zonation in bladed calcite cement and 2nd-generation blocky calcite cement. Note single dolomite crystal at right side of image. (E) Crinoid grainstone–packstone from Woods County, Oklahoma, with open-space-filling syntaxial calcite cement. Crossed polarized light.(F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing compositionally zoned early syntaxial cement (dark orange to bright yellow) extending into 2nd-generation of zoned calcite cement (dull to bright orange).

Figure 3.

(A) Grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) composed of small (<0.3 mm), micritized crinoid, brachiopod, and other skeletal grains from Logan County, Oklahoma. Blue epoxy indicates remaining intergrain porosity. Partly crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing 1st-generation bladed calcite cement followed by a 2nd generation of blocky (equant) calcite cement. (C) Close-up of calcite cement filling intergrain porosity in a skeletal grainstone from Logan County, Oklahoma. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C) showing compositional zonation in bladed calcite cement and 2nd-generation blocky calcite cement. Note single dolomite crystal at right side of image. (E) Crinoid grainstone–packstone from Woods County, Oklahoma, with open-space-filling syntaxial calcite cement. Crossed polarized light.(F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing compositionally zoned early syntaxial cement (dark orange to bright yellow) extending into 2nd-generation of zoned calcite cement (dull to bright orange).

Figure 4.

(A) Dolomite crystals replacing micrite in a wackestone–packstone from Logan County, Oklahoma (facies 4 of LeBlanc, 2014). Plane polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing compositional zoning in the dolomite crystals. Open space filling calcite cement (c) in the upper right field displays bright yellow CL. (C) Silicified skeletal grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) from near top of the Mississippian section. Skeletal grains are replaced by fine crystalline quartz (chert) and intergrain open space is partly filled by coarser crystalline quartz. Remaining carbonate material has been leached resulting in relatively high porosity (shown by blue epoxy). Plane polarized light. (D) Crossed polarized light photomicrograph of (C) that better shows relative crystal sizes of quartz filling skeletal grains and open-space-filling quartz cement (arrows).

Figure 4.

(A) Dolomite crystals replacing micrite in a wackestone–packstone from Logan County, Oklahoma (facies 4 of LeBlanc, 2014). Plane polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing compositional zoning in the dolomite crystals. Open space filling calcite cement (c) in the upper right field displays bright yellow CL. (C) Silicified skeletal grainstone (facies 5 of LeBlanc, 2014) from near top of the Mississippian section. Skeletal grains are replaced by fine crystalline quartz (chert) and intergrain open space is partly filled by coarser crystalline quartz. Remaining carbonate material has been leached resulting in relatively high porosity (shown by blue epoxy). Plane polarized light. (D) Crossed polarized light photomicrograph of (C) that better shows relative crystal sizes of quartz filling skeletal grains and open-space-filling quartz cement (arrows).

Figure 5.

(A) Breccia filled by calcite and quartz cement from Blaine County, Oklahoma. Paragenetically, calcite cement (c) is followed by large quartz crystals (q; compare to quartz cement in Figure 4D) and finally a fine-grained opaque filling (bitumen?). Crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing faint and irregular compositional zoning in calcite cement. Authigenic quartz displays no CL response. (C) Cherty mudstone with solution-enlarged vertical (channel) porosity from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Crossed polarized light. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C). Note that calcite displays faint, irregular compositional zonation. (E) Ptygmatic fracture in cherty, partly dolomitized mudstone from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Note the strong type II and III twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite. Cross polarized light. (F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing yellow–orange calcite cement filling ptygmatic fracture. Note the small (red under CL) dolomite crystals partly replacing the mudstone matrix. Opaque portion of matrix comprises Fe sulfide and organic material.

Figure 5.

(A) Breccia filled by calcite and quartz cement from Blaine County, Oklahoma. Paragenetically, calcite cement (c) is followed by large quartz crystals (q; compare to quartz cement in Figure 4D) and finally a fine-grained opaque filling (bitumen?). Crossed polarized light. (B) CL photomicrograph of (A) showing faint and irregular compositional zoning in calcite cement. Authigenic quartz displays no CL response. (C) Cherty mudstone with solution-enlarged vertical (channel) porosity from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Crossed polarized light. (D) CL photomicrograph of (C). Note that calcite displays faint, irregular compositional zonation. (E) Ptygmatic fracture in cherty, partly dolomitized mudstone from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma, filled by calcite cement. Note the strong type II and III twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite. Cross polarized light. (F) CL photomicrograph of (E) showing yellow–orange calcite cement filling ptygmatic fracture. Note the small (red under CL) dolomite crystals partly replacing the mudstone matrix. Opaque portion of matrix comprises Fe sulfide and organic material.

Figure 6.

(A) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia-filling calcite cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (B) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia filling quartz cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (C) Assemblage of primary petroleum-bearing inclusions in calcite cement filling a ptygmatic fracture from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma. Note the type II twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite crystals. Plane polarized light. (D) Ultraviolet photomicrograph of (C) displaying light blue to cream color fluorescence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions.

Figure 6.

(A) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia-filling calcite cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (B) An assemblage of primary two-phase fluid inclusions (arrows) in a breccia filling quartz cement (Figure 5A). Plane polarized light. (C) Assemblage of primary petroleum-bearing inclusions in calcite cement filling a ptygmatic fracture from Kingfisher County, Oklahoma. Note the type II twinning (Burkhard, 1993) in the calcite crystals. Plane polarized light. (D) Ultraviolet photomicrograph of (C) displaying light blue to cream color fluorescence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions.

Figure 7.

Plot of fluid inclusion homogenization temperature (Th) versus calculated salinities Note that the data cluster into two distinct salinity populations.

Figure 7.

Plot of fluid inclusion homogenization temperature (Th) versus calculated salinities Note that the data cluster into two distinct salinity populations.

Figure 8.

Values of δ18O and δ13C (per mil VPDB) for calcite and dolomite in Mississippian rocks of the north-central Oklahoma study area.

Figure 8.

Values of δ18O and δ13C (per mil VPDB) for calcite and dolomite in Mississippian rocks of the north-central Oklahoma study area.

Figure 9.

(A) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ18O values for calcite samples of the study area. (B) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ13C values for calcite samples of the study area. Values for calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures in Osage County are courtesy of G. M. Grammer.

Figure 9.

(A) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ18O values for calcite samples of the study area. (B) Plot of 87Sr/86Sr versus δ13C values for calcite samples of the study area. Values for calcite cement filling ptygmatic fractures in Osage County are courtesy of G. M. Grammer.

Figure 10.

Paragenetic sequence for diagenetic events in north-central Oklahoma. The dashed lines indicate uncertain timing.

Figure 10.

Paragenetic sequence for diagenetic events in north-central Oklahoma. The dashed lines indicate uncertain timing.

Figure 11.

Calculated δ18O water values in equilibrium with calcite and host limestone using temperature ranges determined from fluid inclusion Th values. Fractionation equations employed are from O’Neil et al. (1969).

Figure 11.

Calculated δ18O water values in equilibrium with calcite and host limestone using temperature ranges determined from fluid inclusion Th values. Fractionation equations employed are from O’Neil et al. (1969).

Microthermometric data for fluid inclusions in carbonate cements. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, Shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).

Table 1.
Microthermometric data for fluid inclusions in carbonate cements. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, Shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).
Sample IDLocationOpen space typeAssemblageLithologyTh (°C)Tm (°C)Calculated salinity (wt.% eq. NaCl)Type
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK (#1)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite142–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite142–1.93.2 
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
    Calcite131   
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
   Assemblage 2Calcite138–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite141–1.93.2 
    Calcite141–2.74.5 
    Calcite140   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
   Assemblage 3Quartz12811.715.7Primary
    Quartz128–0.71.2 
    Quartz960.71.2 
    Quartz1043.65.9 
    Quartz104   
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK (#2)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite87–2.64.3Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite117   
    Calcite –2.54.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite110–2.44.0Secondary-petroleum
   Assemblage 4Calcite106–18.821.5Secondary
   Assemblage 5Calcite115  Secondary
    Calcite115–0.30.5 
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OKVertical/shearAssemblage 1Calcite141  Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite105–1.11.9Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite48  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
   Assemblage 4Calcite111  Primary
    Calcite111   
    Calcite148   
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite130–2.54.2Primary-petroleum
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite140–2.23.7Primary
SMD 2100Osage Co., OK (#1)PtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite97–0.71.2Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite112–0.50.8Primary
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
   Assemblage 3Calcite81–0.10.2Primary
    Calcite105–0.10.2 
    Calcite84–1.52.6 
    Calcite –0.50.9 
   Assemblage 4Calcite872.5 Primary
    Calcite802.5  
    Calcite 0.3  
    Calcite105   
   Assemblage 5Calcite813.0 Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite1160.7 Primary
SMD 2102Osage Co., OK (#2)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite126–3.76.0Primary
    Calcite126–1.83.0 
    Calcite125–3.86.1 
   Assemblage 2Calcite164–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite149–1.93.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite115–21.022.8Primary
    Calcite118–19.021.7 
    Calcite –19.021.7 
    Calcite –15.419.0 
    Calcite127   
   Assemblage 4Calcite173–17.520.6Primary
    Calcite168–15.419.0 
   Assemblage 5Calcite86–23.024.3Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite122–23.024.3 
    Calcite126–21.223.1 
   Assemblage 7Calcite135–2.13.5Primary
   Assemblage 8Quartz126–21.623.4Primary
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
    Quartz101–21.623.4 
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
   Assemblage 9Quartz83–19.622.1Primary
    Quartz87–19.622.1 
    Quartz98–22.323.9 
    Quartz98–18.621.4 
    Quartz98–17.820.8 
    Quartz98–18.521.3 
   Assemblage 10Quartz122–2.03.4Primary
    Quartz123–2.94.8 
    Quartz119–1.42.4 
    Quartz113–1.42.4 
   Assemblage 11Quartz102–2.33.9Primary
    Quartz102–2.03.4 
    Quartz108–2.33.9 
    Quartz108–0.40.7 
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalAssemblage 1Calcite80  Primary-petroleum
   Assemblage 2Calcite74–8.912.7Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite74–21.123.2Primary
    Calcite78–21.123.1 
   Assemblage 4Calcite1220.7 Primary
    Calcite1111.1  
   Assemblage 5Calcite89–2.13.5Primary
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK (#3)Vertical/ptygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite83  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
   Assemblage 2Calcite156  Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite119  Primary
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage1Calcite961.4 Primary?
    Calcite1281.4  
   Assemblage 2Calcite77  Primary?
    Calcite77   
   Assemblage 3Calcite1001.0 Primary?
    Calcite88   
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
   Assemblage 4Calcite98–0.30.5Primary?
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite960.4  
   Assemblage 5Calcite901.8 Primary?
    Calcite1001.8  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite971.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
   Assemblage 6Calcite92  Primary?
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
   Assemblage 7Calcite86  Primary
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite802.3  
Sample IDLocationOpen space typeAssemblageLithologyTh (°C)Tm (°C)Calculated salinity (wt.% eq. NaCl)Type
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK (#1)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite142–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite142–1.93.2 
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
    Calcite131   
    Calcite131–2.54.2 
   Assemblage 2Calcite138–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite141–1.93.2 
    Calcite141–2.74.5 
    Calcite140   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141   
    Calcite141–1.32.2 
    Calcite141   
   Assemblage 3Quartz12811.715.7Primary
    Quartz128–0.71.2 
    Quartz960.71.2 
    Quartz1043.65.9 
    Quartz104   
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK (#2)BrecciaAssemblage 1Calcite87–2.64.3Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite117   
    Calcite –2.54.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite110–2.44.0Secondary-petroleum
   Assemblage 4Calcite106–18.821.5Secondary
   Assemblage 5Calcite115  Secondary
    Calcite115–0.30.5 
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
    Calcite101   
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OKVertical/shearAssemblage 1Calcite141  Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite105–1.11.9Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite48  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
    Calcite48   
   Assemblage 4Calcite111  Primary
    Calcite111   
    Calcite148   
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite130–2.54.2Primary-petroleum
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite140–2.23.7Primary
SMD 2100Osage Co., OK (#1)PtygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite97–0.71.2Primary
   Assemblage 2Calcite112–0.50.8Primary
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
    Calcite118–0.50.8 
   Assemblage 3Calcite81–0.10.2Primary
    Calcite105–0.10.2 
    Calcite84–1.52.6 
    Calcite –0.50.9 
   Assemblage 4Calcite872.5 Primary
    Calcite802.5  
    Calcite 0.3  
    Calcite105   
   Assemblage 5Calcite813.0 Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite1160.7 Primary
SMD 2102Osage Co., OK (#2)Solution/verticalAssemblage 1Calcite126–3.76.0Primary
    Calcite126–1.83.0 
    Calcite125–3.86.1 
   Assemblage 2Calcite164–1.93.2Primary
    Calcite149–1.93.2 
   Assemblage 3Calcite115–21.022.8Primary
    Calcite118–19.021.7 
    Calcite –19.021.7 
    Calcite –15.419.0 
    Calcite127   
   Assemblage 4Calcite173–17.520.6Primary
    Calcite168–15.419.0 
   Assemblage 5Calcite86–23.024.3Primary
   Assemblage 6Calcite122–23.024.3 
    Calcite126–21.223.1 
   Assemblage 7Calcite135–2.13.5Primary
   Assemblage 8Quartz126–21.623.4Primary
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
    Quartz101–21.623.4 
    Quartz130–21.623.4 
   Assemblage 9Quartz83–19.622.1Primary
    Quartz87–19.622.1 
    Quartz98–22.323.9 
    Quartz98–18.621.4 
    Quartz98–17.820.8 
    Quartz98–18.521.3 
   Assemblage 10Quartz122–2.03.4Primary
    Quartz123–2.94.8 
    Quartz119–1.42.4 
    Quartz113–1.42.4 
   Assemblage 11Quartz102–2.33.9Primary
    Quartz102–2.03.4 
    Quartz108–2.33.9 
    Quartz108–0.40.7 
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalAssemblage 1Calcite80  Primary-petroleum
   Assemblage 2Calcite74–8.912.7Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite74–21.123.2Primary
    Calcite78–21.123.1 
   Assemblage 4Calcite1220.7 Primary
    Calcite1111.1  
   Assemblage 5Calcite89–2.13.5Primary
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK (#3)Vertical/ptygmaticAssemblage 1Calcite83  Primary-petroleum
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
    Calcite83   
   Assemblage 2Calcite156  Primary
   Assemblage 3Calcite119  Primary
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalAssemblage1Calcite961.4 Primary?
    Calcite1281.4  
   Assemblage 2Calcite77  Primary?
    Calcite77   
   Assemblage 3Calcite1001.0 Primary?
    Calcite88   
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
    Calcite902.5  
   Assemblage 4Calcite98–0.30.5Primary?
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite98–0.30.5 
    Calcite960.4  
   Assemblage 5Calcite901.8 Primary?
    Calcite1001.8  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite1011.3  
    Calcite971.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
    Calcite1031.3  
   Assemblage 6Calcite92  Primary?
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
    Calcite92   
   Assemblage 7Calcite86  Primary
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite801.9  
    Calcite802.3  
Table 2.

Stable isotope data for calcite cements and host rocks. Clay-sized calcite referred to calcite mud. (Calcite #1 is earlier than #2, but both are late calcite cements), (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = Shear zone, solution = solution-enlarged fracture, ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture). *R shows data from Wang et al. (this volume).

SampleLocalityOpen space typeLithologyδ13C‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VSMOW)
GS-9699-ABlaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement–0.78–6.4024.32
GS-9699-B  Pelitic micrite–3.45–1.3129.57
GS-9834-A VerticalCalcite cement #1–0.50–5.7924.95
GS-9834-B VerticalCalcite cement #2–0.18–7.3023.39
GS-9834-C  Pelitic micrite–0.96–1.0729.82
GS-9698-A BrecciaCalcite cement0.36–2.4128.44
GS-9698-B  Pelitic micrite–3.38–2.5328.31
GS-9696-A VerticalCalcite cement0.64–6.2124.52
GS-9696-B  Pelitic micrite–1.62–1.6429.23
CA-1-99336-A-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement #1–1.16–7.2523.45
CA-1-99336-A-B Vertical/shearCalcite cement #2–1.05–6.9623.74
CA-1-99336-A-C  Pelitic micrite–0.02–3.6427.17
CA-1-10071.11 PtygmaticCalcite cement1.15–7.4223.27
CA-1-9985.9 VerticalCalcite cement–1.22–6.5524.17
CA-1-10174.6  Brachiopod0.41–2.6428.20
CA-1-10208 VerticalCalcite cement0.99–7.6423.04
AM-8371-AKingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement1.82–7.3423.35
AM-8371-B  Calcite mud2.31–3.2427.58
AM-8312-A PtygmaticCalcite cement1.92–7.1923.51
AM-8312-B  Calcite mud2.07–4.9325.84
SMD-2222-ALogan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.30–5.3225.43
SMD-2222-B  Pelitic micrite1.65–3.4827.33
SMD-2223-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.45–5.3725.39
SMD-2223-B  Pelitic micrite–0.47–3.1127.71
TE15Logan Co., OK (#2)-Skeletal debris1.55–2.5128.33
TE15.D -Replacive dolomite1.58–1.7329.14
TE16 -Skeletal debris2.22–3.5827.23
TE17 -Skeletal debris2.02–3.2227.60
TE18 -Skeletal debris2.16–4.5426.24
TE19 -Skeletal debris2.35–4.0726.72
TE20 -Skeletal debris2.28–2.6128.23
TE21 -Skeletal debris2.66–3.6427.17
TE22 -Skeletal debris2.17–4.1926.60
TE23 -Skeletal debris2.33–2.8827.95
TE24 -Skeletal debris1.93–3.3327.49
TE25 -Skeletal debris0.44–4.3426.45
TE26 -Skeletal debris–0.45–3.1927.63
SMD-2100Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–4.0426.76
SMD-2102 Solution/verticalCalcite Cement–2.58–6.2124.52
SMD-2103 BrecciaCalcite Cement0.90–7.0623.64
*R-6738Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.54–6.4424.28
*R-6742 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–6.1224.61
*R-6740 PtygmaticCalcite Cement1.19–6.8323.88
*R-6744 PtygmaticCalcite Cement0.45–6.2324.50
*R-6741 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.46–6.3724.35
*R-6746 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.21–6.1424.59
*R-6739 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.24–9.2121.43
*R-6743 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.51–8.2722.39
*R-6745 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–3.40–6.6524.06
SMD-2206-APayne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmatic/shearCalcite cement2.05–4.9825.78
SMD-2206-B  Pelitic micrite1.89–7.5823.11
SMD-2208-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.02–6.0224.71
SMD-2208-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–5.1825.58
SMD-2211-A Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–2.25–4.8925.88
SMD-2211-B  Pelitic micrite1.30–3.2327.59
SMD-2213-APayne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement1.46–5.7225.02
SMD-2213-B  Pelitic micrite1.45–3.9526.85
SMD-2216-A VerticalCalcite cement–1.18–4.4526.34
SMD-2216-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–3.8526.95
SMD-2217 Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–4.88–6.0124.73
TE1Wood Co., OK-Skeletal debris–3.45–1.4829.39
TE2  Skeletal debris–0.71–5.2325.53
TE3 -Skeletal debris0.13–5.3525.40
TE4 -Skeletal debris0.20–5.1325.63
TE5 -Skeletal debris1.97–3.0727.76
TE5.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.5131.45
TE6 -Skeletal debris2.54–0.0230.90
TE7 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.7427.06
TE7.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.0230.94
TE8 -Skeletal debris2.28–3.1827.64
TE9 -Skeletal debris2.14–3.6427.17
TE9.D -Replacive dolomite2.77–0.4430.47
TE10 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.5127.30
TE11 -Skeletal debris1.91–3.9726.83
TE12 -Skeletal debris2.05–3.3227.50
TE13 -Skeletal debris2.08–3.9826.82
TE14 -Skeletal debris2.32–2.9927.84
SampleLocalityOpen space typeLithologyδ13C‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VPDB)δ18O‰ (VSMOW)
GS-9699-ABlaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement–0.78–6.4024.32
GS-9699-B  Pelitic micrite–3.45–1.3129.57
GS-9834-A VerticalCalcite cement #1–0.50–5.7924.95
GS-9834-B VerticalCalcite cement #2–0.18–7.3023.39
GS-9834-C  Pelitic micrite–0.96–1.0729.82
GS-9698-A BrecciaCalcite cement0.36–2.4128.44
GS-9698-B  Pelitic micrite–3.38–2.5328.31
GS-9696-A VerticalCalcite cement0.64–6.2124.52
GS-9696-B  Pelitic micrite–1.62–1.6429.23
CA-1-99336-A-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement #1–1.16–7.2523.45
CA-1-99336-A-B Vertical/shearCalcite cement #2–1.05–6.9623.74
CA-1-99336-A-C  Pelitic micrite–0.02–3.6427.17
CA-1-10071.11 PtygmaticCalcite cement1.15–7.4223.27
CA-1-9985.9 VerticalCalcite cement–1.22–6.5524.17
CA-1-10174.6  Brachiopod0.41–2.6428.20
CA-1-10208 VerticalCalcite cement0.99–7.6423.04
AM-8371-AKingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement1.82–7.3423.35
AM-8371-B  Calcite mud2.31–3.2427.58
AM-8312-A PtygmaticCalcite cement1.92–7.1923.51
AM-8312-B  Calcite mud2.07–4.9325.84
SMD-2222-ALogan Co., OK (#1)Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.30–5.3225.43
SMD-2222-B  Pelitic micrite1.65–3.4827.33
SMD-2223-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.45–5.3725.39
SMD-2223-B  Pelitic micrite–0.47–3.1127.71
TE15Logan Co., OK (#2)-Skeletal debris1.55–2.5128.33
TE15.D -Replacive dolomite1.58–1.7329.14
TE16 -Skeletal debris2.22–3.5827.23
TE17 -Skeletal debris2.02–3.2227.60
TE18 -Skeletal debris2.16–4.5426.24
TE19 -Skeletal debris2.35–4.0726.72
TE20 -Skeletal debris2.28–2.6128.23
TE21 -Skeletal debris2.66–3.6427.17
TE22 -Skeletal debris2.17–4.1926.60
TE23 -Skeletal debris2.33–2.8827.95
TE24 -Skeletal debris1.93–3.3327.49
TE25 -Skeletal debris0.44–4.3426.45
TE26 -Skeletal debris–0.45–3.1927.63
SMD-2100Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–4.0426.76
SMD-2102 Solution/verticalCalcite Cement–2.58–6.2124.52
SMD-2103 BrecciaCalcite Cement0.90–7.0623.64
*R-6738Osage Co., OkPtygmaticCalcite Cement2.54–6.4424.28
*R-6742 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.58–6.1224.61
*R-6740 PtygmaticCalcite Cement1.19–6.8323.88
*R-6744 PtygmaticCalcite Cement0.45–6.2324.50
*R-6741 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.46–6.3724.35
*R-6746 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–4.21–6.1424.59
*R-6739 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.24–9.2121.43
*R-6743 PtygmaticCalcite Cement2.51–8.2722.39
*R-6745 PtygmaticCalcite Cement–3.40–6.6524.06
SMD-2206-APayne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmatic/shearCalcite cement2.05–4.9825.78
SMD-2206-B  Pelitic micrite1.89–7.5823.11
SMD-2208-A Solution/verticalCalcite cement1.02–6.0224.71
SMD-2208-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–5.1825.58
SMD-2211-A Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–2.25–4.8925.88
SMD-2211-B  Pelitic micrite1.30–3.2327.59
SMD-2213-APayne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement1.46–5.7225.02
SMD-2213-B  Pelitic micrite1.45–3.9526.85
SMD-2216-A VerticalCalcite cement–1.18–4.4526.34
SMD-2216-B  Pelitic micrite1.21–3.8526.95
SMD-2217 Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement–4.88–6.0124.73
TE1Wood Co., OK-Skeletal debris–3.45–1.4829.39
TE2  Skeletal debris–0.71–5.2325.53
TE3 -Skeletal debris0.13–5.3525.40
TE4 -Skeletal debris0.20–5.1325.63
TE5 -Skeletal debris1.97–3.0727.76
TE5.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.5131.45
TE6 -Skeletal debris2.54–0.0230.90
TE7 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.7427.06
TE7.D -Replacive dolomite2.870.0230.94
TE8 -Skeletal debris2.28–3.1827.64
TE9 -Skeletal debris2.14–3.6427.17
TE9.D -Replacive dolomite2.77–0.4430.47
TE10 -Skeletal debris2.09–3.5127.30
TE11 -Skeletal debris1.91–3.9726.83
TE12 -Skeletal debris2.05–3.3227.50
TE13 -Skeletal debris2.08–3.9826.82
TE14 -Skeletal debris2.32–2.9927.84

Sr and oxygen isotope data (‰) for carbonate components in rocks of the study area. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).

Table 3.
Sr and oxygen isotope data (‰) for carbonate components in rocks of the study area. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).
SampleLocationOpen space typelithology87Sr/86Srδ18O (VPDB)δ13C (VPDB)
GS-9699Blaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement0.707812–6.40–0.78
CA-1-99336-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement0.707868–6.96–1.05
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.707898–7.341.82
AM-8371  Calcite mud0.708210–3.242.31
SMD-2222Logan Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.707801–5.321.30
SMD-2222  Pelitic micrite0.707785–3.481.65
SMD-2102Osage Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.711238–6.21–2.58
BB-3170Osage Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.710229–6.12–2.58
BB-3406 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711198–6.14–4.21
BB-3407 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711080–6.65–3.4
SMD-2211Payne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement0.708203–4.89–2.25
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement0.708055–4.45–1.18
SMD-2216  Pelitic micrite0.707981–3.851.21
Bann-5274Wood Co., OK-Replacive dolomite0.7078200.512.87
SampleLocationOpen space typelithology87Sr/86Srδ18O (VPDB)δ13C (VPDB)
GS-9699Blaine Co., OKBrecciaCalcite cement0.707812–6.40–0.78
CA-1-99336-ACanadian Co., OKVertical/shearCalcite cement0.707868–6.96–1.05
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.707898–7.341.82
AM-8371  Calcite mud0.708210–3.242.31
SMD-2222Logan Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.707801–5.321.30
SMD-2222  Pelitic micrite0.707785–3.481.65
SMD-2102Osage Co., OKSolution/verticalCalcite cement0.711238–6.21–2.58
BB-3170Osage Co., OKPtygmaticCalcite cement0.710229–6.12–2.58
BB-3406 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711198–6.14–4.21
BB-3407 PtygmaticCalcite cement0.711080–6.65–3.4
SMD-2211Payne Co., OK (#1)Vertical/ptygmaticCalcite cement0.708203–4.89–2.25
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK (#2)VerticalCalcite cement0.708055–4.45–1.18
SMD-2216  Pelitic micrite0.707981–3.851.21
Bann-5274Wood Co., OK-Replacive dolomite0.7078200.512.87

Th values of fluid inclusions, δ18O values of carbonate cements and calculated δ18O values of calculated waters in equilibrium widr these cements and their host rocks at the temperatures shown. The fractionation equation used for calcite is O'Neil, et al. (1969). The mean δ18O values (VSMOW) for the host limestone in the study area is 27.4‰. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = Shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).

Table 4.
Th values of fluid inclusions, δ18O values of carbonate cements and calculated δ18O values of calculated waters in equilibrium widr these cements and their host rocks at the temperatures shown. The fractionation equation used for calcite is O'Neil, et al. (1969). The mean δ18O values (VSMOW) for the host limestone in the study area is 27.4‰. (Vertical = vertical fracture, Breccia = breccia fracture, shear = Shear zone, Solution = solution-enlarged fracture, Ptygmatic = ptygmatic fracture).
SampleLocation and Host CementOpen space typeTh °Cδ18O calite‰ VSMOWδ18O cement-depositing water‰ VSMOWδ18O water for Limestone‰ VSMOW
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia131 to 14224.310.12 to 11.3213.2 to 14.4
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia87 to 11728.49.94 to 12.948.9 to 11.9
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OK, CalciteVertical/shear47, 104 to 14723.7–0.26, 7.24 to 10.743.4, 10.9 to 14.4
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OK, CalcitePtygmatic13023.38.8512.9
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK, CalciteSolution/vertical14025.411.913.9
SMD2100Osage Co., OK #1, CalcitePtygmatic80 to 12026.87.3 to 11.88.7 to 13.1
SMD2102Osage Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical115, 135, 149,17324.59.0 to 11.0, 11.9 to 13.512.6 to 14.6, 15.5 to 17.1
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical74 to 12226.36.84 to 11.547.9 to 12.6
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical/ptygmatic8324.76.238.9
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical77 to 11224.74.71 to 8.717.4 to 11.4
SampleLocation and Host CementOpen space typeTh °Cδ18O calite‰ VSMOWδ18O cement-depositing water‰ VSMOWδ18O water for Limestone‰ VSMOW
GS-9699Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia131 to 14224.310.12 to 11.3213.2 to 14.4
GS-9698Blaine Co., OK, CalciteBreccia87 to 11728.49.94 to 12.948.9 to 11.9
CA-1-99336-BCanadian Co., OK, CalciteVertical/shear47, 104 to 14723.7–0.26, 7.24 to 10.743.4, 10.9 to 14.4
AM-8371Kingfisher Co., OK, CalcitePtygmatic13023.38.8512.9
SMD-2222Logan Co., OK, CalciteSolution/vertical14025.411.913.9
SMD2100Osage Co., OK #1, CalcitePtygmatic80 to 12026.87.3 to 11.88.7 to 13.1
SMD2102Osage Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical115, 135, 149,17324.59.0 to 11.0, 11.9 to 13.512.6 to 14.6, 15.5 to 17.1
SMD-2216Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical74 to 12226.36.84 to 11.547.9 to 12.6
SMD-2217Payne Co., OK #1, CalciteVertical/ptygmatic8324.76.238.9
SMD-2208Payne Co., OK #2, CalciteSolution/vertical77 to 11224.74.71 to 8.717.4 to 11.4

Contents

GeoRef

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