Rheological information determined from cleavage refraction in naturally deformed interlayered quartzites and phyllites
Published:January 02, 2020
Dyanna M. Czeck, Jolene T. Traut, Peter J. Hudleston, 2020. "Rheological information determined from cleavage refraction in naturally deformed interlayered quartzites and phyllites", Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: 50 Years of Research since the Seminal Text Book of J. G. Ramsay, C. E. Bond, H. D. Lebit
Download citation file:
Cleavage refraction angles are used to estimate effective viscosity contrasts between interlayered quartzites and phyllites within the Baraboo Syncline, Wisconsin, USA. Both types of layers contain two major phases, quartz and pyrophyllite, with minor amounts of hematite. Quartz (with minor hematite) behaves as the strong phase and pyrophyllite acts as the weak phase. Cleavage refraction directly relates to mineralogy with a linear relationship between bedding/cleavage angle and strong-phase concentration. Mineralogy exerts first-order control over effective viscosity contrasts, which are generally small, in most cases <10. Effective viscosity contrasts are consistent across the fold, so are likely not to be highly strain dependent and indicate approximate linear viscous rheology. Microstructures suggest deformation was dominated by dislocation creep in layers with high quartz concentrations and diffusive mass transfer in layers with lower quartz concentrations, and that the transition of the deformation mechanism is gradual. Thus, the rheological flow laws at the small scale may not reflect the bulk flow law at the large scale over the span of the deformation. Effective viscosity contrasts allow an evaluation of samples compared to theoretical two-phase mixtures. The analysed samples most closely resemble the Reuss bound of two-phase mixtures, regardless of the mineralogy.
Figures & Tables
Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: 50 Years of Research since the Seminal Text Book of J. G. Ramsay
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
This Special Publication is a celebration of research into the Folding and Fracturing of Rocks to mark the 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal textbook by J. G. Ramsay. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks summarised the key structural geology concepts of the time. Through his numerical and geometric focus John pioneered and provided solutions to understanding the processes leading to the folding and fracturing of rocks. His strong belief that numerical and geometric solutions, to understanding crustal processes, should be tested against field examples added weight and clarity to his work. The basic ideas and solutions presented in the text are as relevant now as they were 50 years ago, and this collection of papers celebrates John's contribution to structural geology. The papers explore the lasting impact of John and his work, they present case studies and a modern understanding of the process documented in the Folding and Fracturing of Rocks.