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This chapter demonstrates a nondestructive, multispectral approach to evaluating chemical and spatial heterogeneities within mudstone fabrics. A combination of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document nanometer- to millimeter-scale microtextures in mudstones. Additionally, micro-Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectroscopy was used to identify both clay minerals and compositional structures, such as aromatic and aliphatic components in kerogen. A set of organic-rich mudstones with thermal maturities ranging from immature to oil prone were analyzed and used as examples to document the multispectral, multiscale approach. This work demonstrates the different spectral approaches and their applicability to the analysis of organic-rich mudstones. Single-channel fluorescence images collected with various excitation/emission wavelengths were used to access microtextural details in mudstones, whereas multichannel composite fluorescence images were used to evaluate relative thermal maturity among samples. In addition, SEM backscatter and energy dispersive X-ray microscopy were used to calibrate fluorescence signals to mineralogy and provide submicron information on grain boundaries and microfabrics. Micro-FTIR chemical maps represent the spatial distribution of chemical information related to properties of interest such as the presence and character of hydrocarbons and clay minerals. The infrared (IR) spectra associated with organic matter were also analyzed for quantitative indicators of thermal maturity. Opportunities for image processing and analysis that have the capability to integrate these multiscale, multispectral approaches are discussed for a more robust understanding of mudstone microfabrics, heterogeneity, and their impact on mudstone reservoir quality.

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