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Because of climate change, the frequency, intensity and/or duration of extreme weather events such as floods, droughts, storms and extreme temperatures is increasing. These events are often related to loss of property, money and life, especially in poor and developing countries where there is no or poor disaster management due to social and financial difficulties or due to a lack of synergy between the mitigation actions taken. Negative impacts can be reduced and losses can be better handled with proper water management techniques. However, these should not be handled solely with traditional management. The actual problem cannot be over simplified as merely a question of coping with resources availability and demand. Therefore, the present paper aims to summarize advances in weather forecasting and reservoir operation in the Upper São Francisco River, strategic to Brazil because it provides water to the semi-arid region and energy for economically thriving Brazilian regions. Moreover, it discusses challenges, opportunities and improvements needed to implement these advances in the current national integrated water resources management. This is mainly focused on water-related disaster mitigation.

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