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Abstract

The integrated application of advanced visualization techniques – validated against outcrop, core and gamma ray log data – was found to be crucial in characterizing the spatial distribution of fluvial facies and their inherent permeability baffles to a centimetre-scale vertical resolution. An outcrop/behind outcrop workflow was used, combining the sedimentological analysis of a perennial deep braided outcrop with ground-penetrating radar profiles, behind outcrop optical and acoustic borehole imaging, and the analyses of dip tadpoles, core and gamma ray logs. Data from both the surface and subsurface allowed the recognition of two main architectural elements – channels and compound bars – and within the latter to distinguish between the bar head and tail and the cross-bar channel. On the basis of a well-constrained sedimentological framework, a detailed characterization of the gamma ray log pattern in the compound bar allowed several differences between the architectural elements to be identified, despite a general cylindrical trend. A high-resolution tadpole analysis showed that a random pattern prevailed in the channel, whereas in the bar head and tail the tadpoles displayed characteristic patterns that allowed differentiation. The ground-penetrating radar profiles aided the 3D reconstruction of each architectural element. Thus the application of this outcrop/behind outcrop workflow provided a solid database for the characterization of reservoir rock properties from outcrop analogues.

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