Skip to Main Content
Gold Open Access: This article is published under the terms of the CC-BY 3.0 license.

The Romans, like the Egyptians and much more than the Greeks, used polychrome stones for decorative purposes in architectural elements, floor and wall facings and statuary. Throughout their Mediterranean provinces they systematically searched for and exploited a very large number of beautiful lithotypes, many of which they distributed to all corners of their empire. The most important of these stones were often re-used later in medieval-to-modern times; some of them are still offered on the market. They include granitoid rocks (granites, granodiorites/tonalities, gabbros, quartz-monzonites), a few lavas, many metamorphites (impure marbles, metabreccias and metandesites) and several sedimentary rocks (limestones, lumachellas, conglomerates, calcareous alabasters/travertines). The 40 most important and widespread of these lithotypes are considered here as regards their origin, the history of their use and their minero-petrographic characteristics, which can contribute to better knowledge of single species, to determination of the original quarries and to archaeometric solutions of several provenance problems.

1. Introduction

Anyone travelling along the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea or in the interior of many countries belonging in antiquity to the Roman Empire (which included non-Mediterranean areas such as Britannia, the Atlantic coasts of Iberia and Gallia, and central Europe), will often come across beautiful coloured stones in monuments of the Roman or later periods. The use of such stones started at the end of the Republic when the Romans conquered Greece and Carthage, and inherited the kingdom of Pergamum in Asia Minor; they thus became acquainted with the famous marble monuments of the most important towns of Macedonia, Attica and Peloponnesus, and they first discovered the decoration of the Hellenistic palaces with coloured stones. It was, however, under Augustus (27 BC–14 AD) that the stones were imported on a large scale, so that the appearance of Rome changed considerably: we know from Suetonius that Augustus was very proud to have received (from Julius Caesar) a city made of bricks and tufa, and to have left it built of marble. This goal became possible especially after the conquest of Alexandria and Egypt (30 BC) and the consequent access to the very numerous Pharaonic and Ptolemaic stone-quarries of the Eastern Desert and of the Aswan area (Gnoli, 1988).The expansion of the empire, often called the ‘Romanisation’ of the Mediterranean during the pax romana, and later on, saw the start of the parallel phenomenon of ‘marbleing’ of Roman towns, first of all in public buildings such as the forum and basilica, the theatre and amphitheatre, the macella and temples, etc., which were the subjects of the evergetism of emperors and of rich benefactors. Beautiful coloured stones were imported, often from distant and impenetrable parts of the ancient world, to serve as an expression of imperial munificentia and propaganda (Pensabene, 2014). This phenomenon was soon accompanied by the use of precious and exotic stones by wealthy private individuals, who employed marble as a status symbol of their success and power: floors and walls faced with thin slabs of coloured stones, called opera sectilia, were far more expensive than mosaics, and proudly exhibited to friends and visitors. The demand for beautiful stones from the most exotic places in the empire increased considerably amongst the ruling classes, and became a substantial source of income for the emperors who owned the most important quarries, such as those of the red porphyry and the granites of Aswan and Mons Claudianus (Gebel Fatira) in Egypt, of the breccias of Chios and Larisa, as well as of the cipollino verde, in Greece, and of africano in Asia Minor. Starting from the 1st century AD, efficient exploitation-production of blocks, columns, pillars, and other semi-finished artefacts in the largest quarries was followed by a sophisticated transport and distribution organisation allowing big columns to cover very long distances, e.g. from Aswan in Egypt to Italica, near Seville, in Spain. The most important quarries (officinae, metalla) like those of red porphyry, of the granite of Mons Claudianus, and of marmor carystium, chium, luculleum, numidicum and phrygium, were imperial property (patrimonium caesaris). They were well organised into sectors (bracchia, loci), and these into cuts (caesurae), so as to be able to identify the provenance of a block with precision. Other quarries were owned by municipalities, or by private individuals. In each case there was a person with overall responsibility (procurator montium), usually a freed slave (libertus) with experience in the rational exploitation of stones, and a technician (machinarius) for the most difficult task, the moving of blocks and large monoliths in the quarry and for shipment. Slaves (damnati ad metalla) or paid workers (lapicidae) did the hard work of cutting and the initial shaping of artefacts in the quarry. In most cases transport took place on carriages drawn by oxen or donkeys as far as the nearest harbour, where ships (naves onerariae), often purpose-built to carry single monoliths, transported their cargoes of marble to the various Mediterranean destinations. When not covered by a specific order, the marble was stockpiled in great store-yards (stationes marmorum) like those of Ostia (Italy), Alexandria (Egypt), Nicomedia and Miletus (Izmit and Balat, Turkey, respectively,), which operated as distribution centres for the empire (Lazzarini, 2002c, 2007; Pensabene, 2014).

As a consequence of this efficient organisation, we know that the majority of the most prestigious and expensive coloured stones (those listed in Diocletian’s Edict on maximum prices of 301, Gnoli, 1988: the green and red porphyries, the cipollino verde, the africano, the giallo and rosso antico, etc.) are almost ubiquitous in Roman towns, at least as small slabs (Lazzarini, 2007, 2009): when not present, we often find them imitated by fresco paintings or replaced by similar local stones.

From the very beginning the use of polychrome stones was limited mostly to small, irregular slabs inserted into mosaic floors called scutulata pavimenta. Later on, larger slabs of geometrical shapes were joined together for facing floors and walls, and architectural elements such as capitals and columns were introduced in public and private buildings. The use of polychrome marbles was then extended, especially from the 2nd century AD on, to statuary, tubs and furniture.

Towards the end of the Roman empire, with the implosion of its organisation including the ‘logistics’ of the marble market, and under the pressure of barbarian invasions, many quarries were abandoned, sometimes also because of the excessive quantity of stone accumulated at several stationes marmorum, and because of the reuse of marble pieces formerly installed in ruined buildings, a practice that was already underway in the 3rd century. Such reuse became almost the rule in the western Middle Ages, and lasted for centuries, often until modern times: Roman monuments were spoliated and new buildings, such as Christian churches, erected and/or decorated using ancient columns, capitals and other elements, often re-cut and reworked. The same phenomenon occurred in the East, in some instances, especially in Early Byzantine times, with the addition of new coloured lithotypes. In both cases the reuse of ancient marbles led to their further spread and distribution, so that we now find typical Roman polychrome stones almost everywhere in the Mediterranean area, in archaeological sites as well as in churches, mosques, castles and palaces: hence the importance of the determination of their original quarries. Such a determination may give immediate information on the provenance and economic value of an artefact (a statue or a part of a monument); it may help in reconstructing ancient commercial traffic and trade routes (the identification of marbles forming part of sunken cargoes enables ancient routes to be reconstructed quite precisely); the location of the quarry from which a damaged marble came makes it possible to find sound material for the purpose of replacement, restoration, copies, etc. Dated artefacts and monuments, in turn, may help in fixing the interval of use of a certain quarry and related stone. The precise identification of the provenance of white and coloured marbles used in antiquity remains an issue of fundamental interest for archaeologists, architects and art historians, and continues to engage scientists of various disciplines, but especially of Earth sciences.

The identification of coloured stones is, in general, much easier than that of white marbles (Lazzarini, 2004) because for most of them it may be determined through what we may call a ‘visual connoisseurship’, which can be acquired after systematic visits to ancient quarries (where one can observe the colour and texture variation of a specific stone), studies of ancient stones in monuments, museums and archaeological areas, as well as in historical lithological collections (Mielsch, 1985; Price, 2007). Once a possible area of origin of an unknown stone is determined, local inquiries with regional geologists and people working in marble factories may prove extremely useful, as can observation of the stone used in modern buildings as, very often, ancient materials have been re-exploited in modern times. This integrated provenancing method (Lazzarini, 2002a) has been applied successfully in the identification of several hitherto unknown ancient quarries (e.g. the granite from Mysia, and various breccias). When this method fails, then a much more time-consuming and not always successful methodology is applied, starting from a scientific approach with laboratory analyses. Ultimately, the establishment of a reference database is of fundamental importance. This is now, in large part, available thanks to the numerous specialist studies performed over the last 40 years, although its development is not comparable with the much more detailed database established for white, pure, marbles (Antonelli and Lazzarini, 2016). A database is also a pre-requisite for solution of the most difficult identification problems deriving from macroscopically very similar coloured lithotypes.

2. The archaeometric problems of polychrome stones

As cited above, the positive identification of several coloured stones that look alike macroscopically may be reached only with an archaeometric approach. It is worth mentioning here the problems related to some of the lithotypes considered here: first of all the magmatites, then the impure marbles, some breccias and finally the calcite alabasters:

  • the pinkish variety of the Aswan granite may (to some extent) be confused with the granito sardo (Sardinian granite) and the Egyptian granite from Fawakhir/Wadi el-Sid (Gnoli, 1988; Brown and Harrell, 1995; Klemm and Klemm, 1991, 2008): a distinction may be based on the K/Rb and Ba/Zr ratios (Galetti et al., 1992);

  • the grey tonalite of Mons Claudianus (granito del foro) is macroscopically identical to the granite from Nicotera (province of Cosenza, Italy) used in Roman times in central and southern Italy for columns and pillars, probably as a substitute for the more famous (and expensive) Egyptian counterpart. The macroscopic distinction of these two lithotypes is very difficult, and identification should be based on the petrographic analysis of a thin section: the two-mica granite from Nicotera is quite distinct from the classical one-mica (biotite) tonalite of Gebel Fatira (Antonelli et al., 2010);

  • the granito elbano (Elba granite) is very similar to the Mysian granite: a first differentiation may be based on the presence of large (centimetric) white plagioclase megacrysts in the former, and on that of small (millimetric) hornblende prismatic crystals in the latter: both may be detected by an expert naked eye (or with a magnifying lens in the case of hornblende). A more reliable identification, however, may be based on the presence of traces of muscovite and tourmaline in the Elba granite, both of which are missing from the Mysian granite, and on the larger Rb, Zr and smaller Ba and Sr contents of the former with respect to the latter (De Vecchi et al., 2000);

  • the quartz-monzonite from ancient Troas (marmor troadense) is very similar to a quartz-monzonite from Corsica. Although used only in the Renaissance (by the Medici family), and thus posing no problems of confusion with ancient Roman usage, the latter can be distinguished by its coarser crystals (megacrysts of 2–4 cm) of grey-violet K-feldspar;

  • the exact determination of the original quarry of sarcophagi made of lapis sarcophagus is of considerable importance because they could have been made at Assos (now Behramkale, province of Ayvacık, Turkey), in the nearby island of Lesbos, or in the further away town of Pergamum (now Bergama). Petrography and geochemistry combined may solve provenancing problems using an existing reference database (Lazzarini and Visonà, 2009);

  • it is very difficult to separate the uniformly red variety of rosso antico quarried in the Mani peninsula (Greece) from the equivalent variety of cipollino rosso exploited near ancient Iasos in Turkey. Differentiation criteria are grain size (a little bit larger for the latter) and Fe/Ni ratio (Gorgoni et al., 2002). It is worth mentioning the existence on the island of Rhodes (Greece) of a red limestone which is macroscopically very similar to both marbles [rosso antico and cipollino rosso?], and which is also used for statuary and architectural elements from Hellenistic to Roman times (Herrmann, 1988): differentiation is possible, again by the microscopic examination of thin sections;

  • the separation of the cipollino verde euboico of the district of Karystos from that of Styra, and of these cipollini from that of Mani (cipollino verde tenario) may be achieved from the analysis of their stable C and O isotope ratios (Lazzarini, 2007);

  • it is often difficult (especially in small artefacts) to distinguish between some varieties of the breccia di settebasi (quarried in the Island of Skyros, Greece) from the breccia medicea of the Apuan Alps (Tuscany, Italy), a stone which is sometimes used as a substitute for it: the presence of chloritoid, easily determined in thin section, is indicative of an Italian origin for the artefact in question (Lazzarini, 2007);

  • the difference between the very common verde antico (marmor thessalicum) and verde di Tinos (Tinos green), which was much more rarely used in Roman times, may be based on the brecciated fabric and presence of white marble clasts in the former, lacking in the latter (Lazzarini, 2007; Melfos, 2008);

  • the distinction of the giallo antico brecciato from the breccia dorata (originating in the Montagnola Senese, Italy: Bruno and Lazzarini, 1999) may be achieved through a petrographic study: the former is made up of clasts of micrite/microsparite and frequently contains plagioclase among the accessory minerals; the latter are composed of clasts of slightly recrystallized calcite belonging to a low-metamorphic-grade marble, without plagioclase;

  • the identification of the many calcite alabasters used by the Romans, mostly at a regional level, and their differentiation from the common Egyptian alabaster remains unresolved: the best contribution towards the solution of this problem at present is obtained from the determination of the 87Sr/86 Sr ratio (Barbieri et al., 2002; Lazzarini and Çolak, 2002; Lazzarini et al., 2006, 2012).

3. The coloured stone catalogue

The present chapter is intended to make a general contribution towards the establishment of a basic database of the most important coloured stones introduced by the Romans for building and/or decorating public and private buildings through an overview of the provenance, periods and typologies of use together with an essential minero-petrographic characterization. Those considered here are the really ‘international’ lithotypes that travelled in antiquity from their home country, often to reach most (if not all) of the provinces of the Roman Empire. Given the considerable number of stone species that were distributed widely by the Romans, a choice has been made of the 40 most commonly used lithotypes. They have been grouped according to their petrographic nature into the three great classes of magmatites (granitoids and lavas), metamorphites (excluding the white and grey, pure crystalline marbles) and sedimentary rocks (breccias, limestones, lumachellas, alabasters/travertines). Note that several other ‘international’ stones were used by the Romans, the origin of many of which, especially of breccias and alabasters, remains unknown.

For each of the stone species considered here are given:

  • a photograph of the holotype showing the typical colour and texture of the rock (in a few cases, when it features considerable macroscopic variation, more than one specimen is shown): this photo is sufficient in most cases to allow the identification of coloured lithotypes used in Mediterranean antiquity in Roman or later monuments.

  • the Latin name of the stone (when known from ancient sources)

  • a photomicrograph of a thin section of the holotype. This photomicrograph taken between crossed polars at different magnifications (according to the grain-size of the rock) may be of considerable help in confirming the macroscopic identification of stones of uncertain provenance

  • two definitions, one with known ancient and modern synonyms of the stone (some of these are quite old Italian names, traditionally used since the Early Renaissance and still employed internationally by archaeologists and art historians), the location of its quarries (also located on a map, see Figs 1 and 2), the period and typology of use (the latter referred only to antiquity), the distribution in the ancient world (only through bibliographical references), an indication of the frequency of ancient use (according to the experience and direct knowledge of the present writer); and another with the geological age (when known), petrographic classification, type of macro/microtexture and grain size (fine = up to 2 mm; medium = 2–5 mm; coarse = >5 mm), and mineralogical composition, with a semi-quantitative evaluation of the main (primary, and/or characterizing) minerals and an indication of the accessory minerals. Both definitions also record the relative important bibliographic references.

Figure 1.

Geographic location of the quarries of magmatic extrusive (red) and intrusive (blue) rocks reported in the catalogue.

Figure 1.

Geographic location of the quarries of magmatic extrusive (red) and intrusive (blue) rocks reported in the catalogue.

Figure 2.

As for Fig.1, but for sedimentary (red) and metamorphic (blue) rocks.

Figure 2.

As for Fig.1, but for sedimentary (red) and metamorphic (blue) rocks.

Note: where scale bars are provided, each black or white rectangle is 10 mm in the long dimension. ‘Field of view’ applies to the horizontal dimension of the image.

Acknowledgments and dedication

The author is grateful to the editors of this volume for their useful comments, and to Wolters Kluwer Italia for authorizing the reproduction of the majority of the macrophotographs taken from chapter 7 of the book Pietre e marmi antichi, CEDAM, Castenaso (BO), 2004. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Carlo Gorgoni and Bruno Turi, dear friends and colleagues of the Universities of Modena and Rome “La Sapienza”, respectively, with whom the author has shared several studies on some of the stones considered in here. This manuscript was accepted for publication in February 2016.

Stone 1LAPIS PORPHYRITES LITHOS ROMAIOS; PORFIDO ROSSO ANTICO

Mons porphyrites, Mons Igneus, Gebel Abu Dokhan, Eastern Desert, Egypt (1 in Fig. 1) Late Ptolemaic period-mid V c. AD, then reused. Lazzarini (2009).

Slabs for opera sectilia ≫ columns > tubs and vases > statuary>sarcophagi Maxfield and Peacock (2001); Del Bufalo (2012).

Proterozoic (~600 Ma) Weak-to-medium grade metamorphic andesite/dacite (metandesite/metadacite) Porphyritic, with small (mm) white/pink phenocrysts in a purplish aphanitic groundmass Plagioclase ⋙ hornblende/oxyhornblende > biotite > accessories (magnetite, hematite, apatite, piemontite); the main minerals often (severely altered) into secondary minerals Brown and Harrell (1995); Klemm and Klemm (2008); Makovicky et al. (2016a,b).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 2LAPIS HIERACITES PORFIDO VERDE EGIZIANO

Eastern quarries of the Gebel Abu Dokhan, Eastern Desert, Egypt (1 in Fig. 1) Roman Imperial period (I-II c.), then reused Slabs for opera sectlia >>> small columns > vases Gnoli (1988); Maxfield and Peacock (2001).

Proterozoic (~600 Ma) Medium-grade metamorphic / metasomatic andesite/dacite Porphyritic, with small (mm) white phenocrysts in a green-greenish aphanitic groundmass plagioclase (moderately altered into clay and epidote) >> hornblende and biotite, (severely altered to chlorite, epidote, iron oxides) > accessories and secondary minerals as above Brown and Harrell (1995); Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view = 1.3 mm

Stone 3LAPIS LACEDAEMONIUS KROKEATIS LITHOS, VERDE DI LACONIA, SERPENTINO, PORFIDO VERDE ANTICO, PORFIDO VITELLI

Stefanià, Krokea, Peloponnesus, Greece (2 in Fig. 1) Minoan-Mycenaean times; Late Republican-Late Imperial periods, then reused; Lazzarini, 2007 Seals and vases (Min.-Myc.); Slabs of opera sectilia >> small columns and capitals >> statuary > cuticulae (palettes) Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2007).

Mid-Triassic Metasomatized basaltic andesite/trachyandesite glomero-porphyric, with green aphanitic groundmass, often with amygdales of bluish/red/brown chalcedony plagioclase >>> chloritized pyroxene, chlorites (delessite, chamosite) > epidotes > accessories (titanite, magnetite and other iron oxides, pyrite, calcite) Pe-Piper and Kotopouli (1981); Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view =1.7 mm

Stone 4LAPIS SARCOPHAGUS

Greek Archaic period-IV c. AD Ancient Assos (Troas), now Behramkale, Turkey (3 in Fig. 1); Lazzarini and Visonà (2009).

Sarcophagi (also used locally as building material) Ward-Perkins (1992); Lazzarini (1994).

Late Miocene Andesite/trachyandesite Glomeroporphyric, medium-grained, porous, with microcrystalline/aphanitic brown groundmass Plagioclase >> pyroxene (clino and ortho) > biotite >> accessories (Fe-Ti oxides, apatite) Lazzarini (1994); Lazzarini and Visonà (2009)

Field of view = 4.5 mm

Stone 5 GRANITO BIGIO, GRANITO A MORVIGLIONE, ESTERELLITE

Saint Raphael, Boulouris, Dramont, province of Fréjus, France (4 in Fig. 1); Mazeran (2004).

II- V c. AD, then reused Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns Gnoli (1988); Mazeran (2004).

Oligocene Dacite Porphyric/glomeroporphyric with grey microcrystalline groundmass Plagioclase (often zoned) >> quartz, biotite, hornblende >>> accessories (apatite, titanite, Fe-oxides/hydroxides) Brentchaloff and Mazeran (1999); Rehault et al. (2012).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 6LITHOS PYRRHOPOECILOS, LAPIS THE-BAICUS, LAPIS SYENITES SIENITE; GRANITO ROSSO EGIZIANO

Immediate SE outskirts of the town of Aswan, Egypt (5 in Fig. 1) III Dynasty-V c. AD, then reused, Lazzarini (2009).

Still quarried Columns and Pillars > statuary > obelisks > tubs > slabs for opera sectilia > sarcophagi Gnoli (1988); Kelany et al. (2007); Klemm and Klemm (2008)..

Proterozoic (~565 Ma) Normal-to-slightly alkaline granite-to monzogranite granular, mostly inequigranular, coarse-grained; a finegrained equigranular variety is rare, although used since pharaonic times K-feldspar(perthite) > plagioclase > quartz > biotite >> hornblende > accessories (Fe-ores, titanite, apatite, allanite, zircon) Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 7 DIORITE EGIZIANA, GRANITO NERO

Gebel Nagug and immediate SE outskirts of the town of Aswan, Egypt (5 in Fig. 1) III Dynasty-III c. AD, then reused, Lazzarini (2009).

Still quarried Statuary > columns and pillars > tubs > slabs > mortars and millstones Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Proterozoic (~580 Ma) granodiorite, passing to tonalite in the darker varieties inequigranular, medium-to coarse-grained Hornblende > plagioclase > biotite > K-feldspar (perthite) >> accessories (apatite, allanite, titanite, chlorite, calcite) Kelany et al. (2007); Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view = 7.0 mm

Stone 8LAPIS OPHYTES GRANITO VERDE DELLA SEDIA, OFITE

Wadi Umm Vikala, Eastern Desert, Egypt (6 in Fig. 1) Pre-Early Dynastic periods; Imperial times (end of Ic. BC-III c. AD), then reused; Lazzarini (2009).

Funerary vases; slabs for opera sectilia >> tubs and vases > small columns > trapezophoroi > cuticulaeGnoli (1988); Ashton et al. (2000)

Precambrian Metagabbro Equigranular, fine-grained (sedia di S.Lorenzo variety) to inequigranular medium-grained often with pegmatitic zones (sedia di S. Pietro variety) Plagioclase (pervasively altered to saussurite) = pyroxene (± altered augite) > hornblende (mostly chloritized) >> magnetite >>> accessories (uralite, secondary quartz) Brown and Harrell (1995), Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view = 1.7 mm

Stone 9 GABBRO EUFOTIDE, GRANITO VERDE PLAS-MATO

Wadi Maghrabiya, Eastern Desert, Egypt (6 in Fig. 1) Pre-Early Dynastic periods; Imperial times (end of I c. BC-end of I c. AD) Funerary Vases; small slabs for opera sectilia > small objects (furniture) Gnoli (1988); Harrell et al. (1999).

Precambrian Metagabbro Inequigranular, medium- to coarse-grained, with pegmatitic zones Plagioclase (labradorite), altered significantly to saussurite = pyroxene (augite), much altered to uralite and chlorite Harrell et al. (1999).

Field of view = 2.35 mm

Stone 10 MARMOR TIBERIANUM GRANITO BIANCO E NERO

Wadi Barud, Eastern Desert, Egypt (7 in Fig. 1)

Pre-Early Dynastic periods; Imperial times (end of I c. BC- end of I c. AD), then reused Funerary vases; slabs for opera sectilia > columns Gnoli (1988); Harrell and Lazzarini (2002).

Proterozoic (~680 Ma) Quartz diorite: medium-to-mainly coarse-grained (Santa Prassede variety); fine-grained (“del Cairo” variety) Inequigranular Plagioclase (oligoclase-andesine), somewhat altered = hornblende (often chloritized) >> quartz >>> biotite >>> accessories (apatite, magnetite, titanite and zircon) Brown and Harrell (1995); Harrell and Lazzarini (2002).

Field of view = 7.0 mm

Stone 11 MARMOR CLAUDIANUM GRANITO DEL FORO

Mons Claudianus, Gebel Fatira (tonalite), Wadi Umm Huyut (tonalite-gneiss), Eastern Desert, Egypt (7 in Fig. 1) I–IV (?) c. AD, then reused; Lazzarini (2009) Columns >> tubs > slabs for opera sectiliaGnoli (1988); Brown and Harrell (1995); Peacock and Maxfield (1977); Harrell et al. (1999); Maxfield and Peacock (2001); Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Proterozoic (~680 Ma) Tonalite/tonalite-gneiss Inequigranular, with clamps of intergrown hornblende and biotite; fine-to-medium grain size Plagioclase (oligoclase) >> quartz >> hornblende > biotite>> K-feldspar (microcline) >> accessories (apatite, magnetite, titanite and zircon) Brown and Harrell (1995); Harrell et al. (1999); Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 12 GRANITO DELLA COLONNA

Wadi Umm Shegilat, Eastern Desert, Egypt (8 in Fig. 1) Pre-Early Dynastic periods; I–II c. AD, then reused Funerary vases; Columns >> trapezoforoi > slabs for opera sectiliaGnoli (1988); Brown and Harrell (1995).

Proterozoic Pegmatitic diorite-to-gabbro Inequigranular, very coarse grain size Plagioclase, strongly altered to clay and sericite > hornblende, altered severely to chlorite (clinochlore) and iron oxides >>> magnetite Lazzarini (1987); Brown and Harrell (1995).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 13 GRANITO VERDE FIORITO DI BIGIO

Wadi Umm Balad, Eastern Desert, Egypt (8 in Fig. 1)

Pre-Early Dynastic; I–II c. AD, then reused Funerary vases; slabs for opera sectilia > columns > tubs and vases Gnoli (1988); Brown and Harrell (1995).

Proterozoic Quartz diorite Equigranular, homogeneous fine grain size Plagioclase (oligoclase-andesine), moderately altered into clay, sericite, epidote and calcite >>> biotite, often altered severely to chlorite and iron oxides >> quartz > accessories (apatite, magnetite, titanite and zircon) Brown and Harrell (1995).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 14 MARMO MISIO, GRANITO MISIO

Kozak Dâg, province of Bergama, Turkey (9 in Fig. 1) II–VI (?) c. AD, then reused; Lazzarini (2009). Columns >> slabs for opera sectilia > sarcophagi Lazzarini (1992); Lazzarini (1998).

Early–Middle Miocene Amphibolic granite/granodiorite Equigranular, with fine and homogeneous grain size Plagioclase > K-feldspar > quartz > biotite>> hornblende >> accessories (magnetite, zircon, allanite, titanite) De Vecchi et al. (2000).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 15 MARMOR TROADENSE GRANITO VIOLETTO

Çigri Dâg, province of Ezine, Turkey (10 in Fig. 1) II–VI c. AD, then reused; Lazzarini (2009). Columns >>> pillars > slabs for opera sectiliaLazzarini (1987); Ponti (1995).

Miocene (~21 Ma) Quartz-monzonite Inequigranular, medium grain size, often with K-feldspar megacrysts (2–4 cm) K-feldspar = plagioclase > hornblende = quartz >> biotite >> accessories (apatite, magnetite, titanite, epidote, chlorite) Lazzarini (1987); Birkle and Satir (1994).

Field of view = 1.7 mm

Stone 16 GRANITELLO, GRANITO ELBANO

Seccheto, Cavoli, ecc. Southern area of Monte Capanne, Elba Island (Italy) (11 in Fig. 1) Late Augustan Age–Late Middle Ages, often reused; Lazzarini (2009). Still quarried Columns >>> slabs for opera sectilia > tubs Gnoli (1988); Tedeschi Grisanti (1992).

Late Miocene Granodiorite Equigranular, fine grain size, often with single large white, euhedral, plagioclase crystals (porphyroblasts); plagioclase (oligoclasic/andesinic) > quartz > K-feld-spar, biotite >> accessories (apatite, titanite, zircon, chlorite, tourmaline, muscovite) Marinelli (1965); De Vecchi et al. (2000).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 17 GRANITO SARDO

Capo Testa, Marmorata, Bocche di Bonifacio (San Bainzo), N Sardinia, Italy (12 in Fig. 1) II–IV c. AD, then reused; Lazzarini, 2009. Still quarried Columns > pillars >> slabs for opera sectilia > tubs Gnoli (1988); Wilson (1988); Poggi and Lazzarini (2005).

Late Carboniferous–Permian Monzogranite Inequigranular, medium- to coarse-grain size K-feldspar > plagioclase > quartz> biotite >> accessories (apatite, titanite, zircon, chlorite, Fe oxides) Maccioni et al. (1968).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 18 LAPIS HEKATONTALITHON, LAPIS HEXAKONTALITHON

CENTOPIETRE, BRECCIA VERDE EGIZIANA Mons Basanites, Wadi Hammamat, Eastern Desert, Egypt (13 in Fig. 2) Early Dynastic; New Kingdom; Late Augustan Age-IV c. AD (?), then reused Sarcophagi, vases; columns > slabs for opera sectiliaGnoli (1988); Harrell et al. (2002); Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Late Precambrian Polymictic metaconglomerate Clastic, with pebble-to-cobble size (3–30 cm across), often inbriccated and isoriented Volcanic/metavolcanic rocks (tuffs, lavas, mostly sialic) >> sedimentary rocks (greywackes, siltstones, rare chert and limestones) = plutonites (felsic granitoids, rare tonalities and diorites) >> metamorphites (serpentinites) and quartz Willis et al. (1988); Hassan and Hashad (1990); Harrell et al. (2002).

Field of view =1.7 mm

Stone 19 BEKHEN, LAPIS BASANITES BASANITE

Mons Basanites, Wadi Hammamat, Eastern Desert, Egypt (13 in Fig. 2) Pre-Dynastic–I c. AD Small objects (palettes, scarabs, etc.); statuary (portraits) Lucas and Rowe (1938); Andrew (1939); Gnoli (1988).

Late Precambrian Greywacke/metagreywacke-to-siltstone Arenaceous, laminated; siltitic Metagraywacke = quartz in a calcite-sericite-chlorite-epidote matrix, with tourmaline and zircon as accessories; Siltstone = quartz, in a intergrown sericite-chlorite-calcite matrix, with epidote and zircon as accessories Willis et al. (1988); Hassan and Hashad (1990); Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view =0.9 mm

Stone 20MARMOR CARIUM, MARMOR IASSENSE CIPOLLINO ROSSO, AFRICANONE, veined variety (right), brecciated variety (left) Kiykislaçik (ancient Iasos), province of Mula, Turkey (14 in Fig. 2) II c. BC; III c.–Early Byzantine period, then reused; Lazzarini (2009).

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns > table tops Gnoli (1988); Andreoli et al. (2002).

Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrictian) Hematite-marble/metabreccia, with white/grey veins/clast in a matrix coloured red by hematite granoblastic, heteroblastic, clastic, fine-to-medium grain size calcite >>>> hematite >> quartz, plagioclase > muscovite, chlorite Gorgoni et al. (2002).

Field of view =1.7 mm

Stone 21MARMOR TAENARIUM RUBRUM ROSSO ANTICO

Prophytis Elias, Paganea, Làghia, Kokkinoghia, Mianes, etc., Mani peninsula, Peloponnesus, Greece (15 in Fig. 2) Middle Minoan–Mycenaean period; Late II c. BC–Late Roman Empire, then reused; end of XIX c. –~1960; Lazzarini (2007).

Slabs for opera sectilia > cornices >> statuary > columns > table tops > vases and tubs Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2007).

Senonian–Priabonian Impure marble coloured red by hematite granoblastic-heteroblastic with fine grain size calcite >>> hematite > quartz, plagioclase (albitic) > muscovite, chlorite > accessories (Fe hydroxides, apatite, epidote, piemontite) Calogero et al. (2000); Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view = 0.9 mm

Stone 22MARMOR CARYSTIUM, MARMOR STYRIUM

CIPOLLINO VERDE EUBOICO, CIPOLLINO BIGIO EUBOICO Styra-Karystos, southern-western Eubea, Greece (16 in Fig. 2) Late II c. BC–Middle Byzantine period, then reused; end of XIX c. to date; Lazzarini (2007).

Columns > slabs for opera sectilia >> tubs > statuary Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2007).

Late Jurassic–Early Cretaceous Cipollino, impure chlorite/graphite marble Homeo/heteroblastic often passing to lepidoblastic, with fine grain size Calcite >>> quartz > plagioclase (albitic), muscovite/phengite, chlorite > accessories (Fe oxides/hydroxides, ilmenite, rare pyrite, epidote, apatite, titanite) Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view =1.7 mm

Stone 23

BRECCIA DI SETTEBASI, SEMESANTO (variety with mm clasts) Aghios Panteleimon, Valaxa, Treis Boukes, Koprissies (also for semesanto), Skyros Island (Greece) (17 in Fig. 2) Late I c. BC–IV c. AD, then reused; end of XIX c. to date; Lazzarini (2009).

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns > tubs > statuary Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2007).

Middle Trias–Jurassic Carbonatic metabreccia Clastic with angular mm-dm clasts formed by slightly recrystallized, fine-grained calcite/dolomite Calcite >>> dolomite >> accessories (hematite, Fe hydroxides, quartz, muscovite, chlorite, albitic plagioclase) Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 24 MARMOR LUCULLAEUM AFRICANO

Sigacik (ancient Teos), province of Izmir, Turkey (18 in Fig. 2) Early I c. BC–Late II c. AD, then reused; Lazzarini (2009).

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns >> tubs > statuary Gnoli (1988); Pensabene and Lazzarini (1998).

Cretaceous Tectonic, carbonatic breccia/metabreccia Clastic, with cm–dm clasts, angular to subrounded, with very fine grain size and rare macrofossils (Rudists, Crinoids) mudstones >> dolostones; micrite >>> accessories (quartz, chlorite, muscovite, hematite, Fe hydroxides) Lazzarini and Sangati (2004).

Field of view =1.7 mm

Stone 25MARMOR THESSALICUM, LAPIS ATRACIUS

VERDE ANTICO Mount Mopsion, Chasabali, province of Larisa, Greece (19 in Fig. 2) beginning of the II c. AD–Middle (?) Byzantine period; end of XIX c. 1980; Lazzarini (2007).

Columns > Slabs for opera sectilia >> tubs and vases > statuary Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2007).

Late Triassic Ophycalcite breccia Clastic, with mm–dm angular to subrounded clasts of dark green antigorite/antigoritic serpentinite and white marble in a mixed antigorite-calcite matrix Antigorite > calcite >> magnetite >> accessories (Fe oxides/hydroxides, chromite, tremolite, asbestos, chlorite, talc, epidote, millerite) Lazzarini (2007); Melfos (2008).

Field of view =1.7 mm

Stone 26 MARMOR CHALCIDICUM FIOR DI PESCO

Eretria, Island of Eubea, Greece (20 in Fig. 2) III–I c. BC (local); I–IV (?) c. AD, then reused especially in the Baroque period; 1950 to date Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns > tubs > trapezophoroi, sculptures Lazzarini (2007); Russell and Farchard (2012).

Trias Cataclastic limestone, slightly metamorphosed Cataclastic, with many recrystallized areas and cavities of stromatactis type Mudstones (with rare fossils: ammonoids, corals, filaments)>blastic calcite areas;micrite >> accessories (hematite, sericite, chlorite, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, zircon) Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view = 4.5 mm

Stone 27LAPIS KNEKITES ?

BRECCIA ROSSA E GIALLA

Wadi Imu and Wadi Abu Gelbana, province of Sohag, East Bank, Egypt (21 in Fig. 2) Pre-Dynastic-Early Dynastic; I–II c. AD ?, then reused. Funerary vases and other small objects; sarcophagi and tubs, slabs for opera sectiliaKlemm and Klemm (2008); Lazzarini (2002b)

Late Miocene ? Polygenic carbonatic breccia Clastic, mm–cm subangular to subrounded pale-yellow/yellow and grey clasts Mudstone to packstone clasts, composed of microsparite in a micritic-clayey cement with peloids containing rare reworked microfossils and detrital quartz, coloured by Fe hydroxides/oxides Klemm and Klemm (2008).

Field of view = 2.35 mm

Stone 28MARMOR SAGARIUM

BRECCIA CORALLINA, BRECCIA NUVOLATA, BROCCATELLONE (variety)

Vezirhan, province of Bilecik; Balikliova, Toprak Alinmis, Karga and Azmak Tepe, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey (22, 23 in Fig. 2) Late I c. BC–V (?) c. AD, then reused; newly quarried from 1980 to date; Lazzarini (2009).

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns > tubs > statuary Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2002c); Bruno et al. (2012).

Cretaceous Monogenic carbonatic breccia Clastic, with angular to subangular cm–dm clasts mudstone sometimes with peloids; micrite >>> accessories (quartz, muscovite, hematite, Fe hydroxides) Lazzarini (2002c).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 29MARMOR CHIUM

PORTASANTA

Latomi, Chios town, Island of Chios, Greece (23 in Fig. 2) IV c. BC–XI c. AD (with interruptions in the Late Antiquity–Early Byzantine periods), then reused; Lazzarini (2007).

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns > tubs > bases > statuary Lazzarini (2007).

Early–Middle Trias Tecton ic carbonatic breccia, mono/digenic Clastic, with cm–dm angular/subangular clasts, with small amounts of matrix and veins of secondary calcite mudstones (sometimes with filaments) >> grainstone (often with peloids and rare bioclasts) >> dolostone; micrite >> dolomite >> accessories (quartz, plagioclase, muscovite/illite, chlorite, hematite) Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view = 1.7 mm

Stone 30

BRECCIA DI ALEPPO

Kariés, province of Chios (town), Island of Chios, Greece (23 in Fig. 2) Late I c. BC–Late I c. AD, then reused Slabs for opera sectilia > columns > trapezophoroi, stelae, statuary Lazzarini (2007).

Early–Middle Trias Multicoloured polygenic breccia Clastic, with cm–dm grey, red, yellow angular to subrounded clasts, sometimes fossiliferous (ammonoids, corals, etc.), in a grey/red cement mudstones >> bufflestones; micrite >>> accessories (quartz, sericite, Fe oxides/hydroxides) Lazzarini (2007).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 31MARMOR CELTICUM

MARMO DI AQUITANIA, BIANCO E NERO ANTICO, GRAND ANTIQUE

Aubert, Cap de la Bouiche, Pyrenées, France (24 in Fig. 2) III AD–Protobyzantine period, then reused; 1844–1940; Lazzarini (2009).

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns Lazzarini (2005).

Early Cretaceous Tectonic, carbonatic breccia Clastic, formed by black mm–dm angular clasts of a black carbonaceous limestone in a white sparitic cement mudstone/wackestone with abundant microforams, rare bivalves and brachiopods >> dolostone; micrite >> dolomite >> accessories (carbonaceous matter, Fe hydroxides) Lazzarini (2005).

Field of view = 0.05 mm

Stone 32MARMOR NUMIDICUM

GIALLO ANTICO

Djebel Chemtou, Chemtou (ancient Simitthus), Tunisia (25 in Fig. 2) II c. BC–IV c. AD, then reused XX c.; Lazzarini (2009). Slabs for opera sectilia >>> columns > statuary > tubs and vases Gnoli (1988); Rakob (1993).

Jurassic Limestone/carbonatic breccia More or less clastic with yellow, pink angular to subrounded clasts in a yellow/brown/red cement Mudstone/sparstone with micrite >> sparite >>> accessories (Fe oxides/hydroxides, plagioclase, quartz, illite/muscovite) Zagrami et al. (2000).

Field of view = 1.7 mm

Stone 33LAPIS NIGER

BIGIO MORATO (variety of NERO ANTICO)

Djebel Aziz, province of Tunis, Tunisia (26 in Fig. 2) I c. BC–V (?) c. AD, then reused; 1980 to date Slabs for opera sectilia > statuary Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini et al. (2007).

Early Trias Carbonaceous limestone Oolithic/ooid crystalline, grain supported, with abundant veins of sparitic calcite grainstone, locally passing to packstone with ooids/ooliths in a micritic/orthosparitic cement, with rare, much reworked microfossils and abundant carbonaceous matter Agus et al. (2007).

Field of view = 1.7 mm

Stone 34

CIPOLLINO MANDOLATO, GRIOTTE, MARBRE CAMPAN

Campan (Haute-Adour), Pont de la Taule (Couflens, Seix), Pyrenees, France (27 in Fig. 2) Late I–V c. AD; XIX c. to date; Lazzarini (2009). Slabs for opera sectilia >> small columns Antonelli and Lazzarini (2000); Antonelli (2002).

Late Devonian (Famennian) Nodular limestone, with rarely preserved macrofossils (Goniatites sp.)

Microsparitic nodules in a clayey-micritic matrix coloured green by chlorite, or red by hematite Sparite >>> K-mica/illite, chlorite >> accessories (quartz, plagioclase, titanite, pyrite, Fe oxides) Antonelli and Lazzarini (2000); Antonelli (2002).

Field of view =1.1 mm

Stone 35MARMOR TRIPONTICUM

OCCHIO DI PAVONE

Kutluca, province of Izmit, Turkey (28 in Fig. 2) III–VII c. AD, then reused; 1950–90; Lazzarini (2009). Slabs for opera sectilia > columns > tubs and vases > sarcophagi Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini (2002c).

Cretaceous Fossiliferous (Rudists) limestone (lumachella) Bioclastic Micrite >> sparite >>> (hematite, Fe hydroxides, quartz) Lazzarini (2002c).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 36

LUMACHELLA ORIENTALE, LUMACHELLA D’EGITTO, PIETRA PIDOCCHIOSA

Djebel Oust, province of Tunis (29 in Fig. 2) Late I c. BC–III c. AD, then reused Slabs for opera sectilia and tabletops >> statuary > tubs Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini and Mariottini (2012).

Late Jurassic / Early Cretaceous Fossiliferous (Rudists, Bivalves, Foraminifera) limestone Bioclastic Micrite > microsparite >>> quartz>> accessories (glauconite, Fe hydroxides/oxides) Lazzarini and Mariottini (2012).

Field of view = 1.7 mm

Stone 37

BROCCATELLO DI SPAGNA, JASPI DE LA CINTA

La pedrera de la Cinta, Els Valencians, province of Tortosa, Spain (30 in Fig. 2) Middle I–V c. AD, then reused; XVI–XX c.; Lazzarini (2009) Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns >> inscribed stelae Gnoli (1988); Roda (1997); Falcone and Lazzarini (1998); Muñoz i Sebastià and Rovira i Gómez (1997).

Cretaceous (Aptian) Fossiliferous (Rudists, Echinids, Algae, etc.) limestone (lumachella) (Rudstone) Bioclastic Micrite >> sparite >>> accessories (hematite, goethite, Fe hydroxides, quartz) Falcone and Lazzarini (1998).

Field of view = 3.5 mm

Stone 38LAPIS ALABASTRITES

ALABASTRO MELLEO, ALABASTRO COTOGNINO, ALABASTRO EGIZIANO

Hatnub, Wadi Gerrawi, Wadi Sannur, Zawiet Sultan, etc., Middle Egypt (31 in Fig. 2) Late Neolithic to date; Lazzarini (2009).

Small objects, vases (alàbastra) >> slabs for opera sectilia> columns > statuary Gnoli (1988); Klemm and Klemm (1991); Klemm and Klemm (2008); Shaw (2010).

Quaternary Calcite alabaster/travertine Concretionary with thick radial-fibrous/dendritic levels of sparite alternated with thin micritic ones Sparite >> micrite >> micritic aragonite Barbieri et al. (2002); Klemm and Klemm (2008); Pentecost (2010).

Field of view = 2.2 mm

Stone 39 ALABASTRO A PECORELLA

Bou Hanifa, province of Oran, Algeria (32 in Fig. 2) I–IV c. AD; Lazzarini (2009) Slabs for opera sectilia ≫ columns > trapezophoroi, statuary Gnoli (1988); Herrmann et al. (2012).

Quaternary Calcite alabaster/travertine Concretionary with dendritic feather crystals/laminated and mosaic areas Calcite ⋙ hematite Lazzarini et al. (2006); Pentecost (2010); Herrmann et al. (2012).

Field of view = 2.35 mm

Stone 40

ALABASTRO DI JANO DI MONTAIONE, ALABASTRO DI PALOMBARA, ALABASTRO TARTARUGATO, ALABASTRO CINERINO

Iano di Montaione, province of Florence, Italy (33 in Fig. 2) II–V c. AD; XVI–XX c.

Slabs for opera sectilia >> columns > table tops De Michele and Zezza (1979); Gnoli (1988); Lazzarini et al. (2006).

Quaternary Calcitic alabaster/travertine Concretionary with laminated areas containing brown/bluish alabaster clasts Sparite >> micrite >> micritic aragonite Lazzarini et al. (2006).

Field of view = 2.35 mm

References

Agus
,
M.
,
Cara
,
S.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Mola
,
M.
(
2007
)
A laboratory characterization of black limestones (Neri Antichi) from Zeugitania (Tunisia)
.
Marmora
 ,
2
(2006),
71
82
.
Andreoli
,
A.
,
Berti
,
F.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Pierobon Benoit
,
R.
(
2002
)
New contributions on Marmor Iassense
. Pp.
13
18
in:
ASMOSIA VI. Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone
 .
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
,
Venice
, June 15–18, 2000, (
L.
Lazzarini
, editor),
Bottega d’Erasmo
,
Padova, Italy
.
Andrew
,
G.
(
1939
)
The greywackes of the Eastern Desert of Egypt
.
Bulletin de l’Institut d’Egypte
 ,
21
,
153
190
.
Antonelli
,
F.
(
2002
)
I marmi della Gallia e dell’Iberia importati a Roma
. Pp.
267
275
in:
I marmi colorati della Roma imperiale
  (
M.
De Nuccio
and
L.
Ungaro
, editors),
Marsilio
,
Veggiano
(PD).
Antonelli
,
F.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2000
)
Le “Marbre Campan” (Cipollino Mandolato: histoire, diffusion, archéométrie
.
Revue d’Archéométrie
 ,
24
,
111
128
.
Antonelli
,
F.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2016
)
An updated petrographic and isotopic reference database for white marbles used in antiquity
.
Rendiconti Lincei Scienze Fisiche e Naturali
 ,
26
,
399
413
.
Antonelli
,
F.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Cancelliere
,
S.
(
2010
)
“Granito del foro” and “Granito di Nicotera”: petrographic features and archaeometric problems owing to similar appearance
.
Archaeometry
 ,
52
,
919
936
.
Ashton
,
B.G.
,
Harrell
,
J.A.
and
Shaw
,
I.
(
2000
)
Stone
. Pp.
5
77
in:
Ancient Egyptian Materials and Technology
  (
P.T.
Nicholson
and
I.
Shaw
, editors).
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
Barbieri
,
M.
,
Lilyquist
,
C.
and
Testa
G.
(
2002
)
Provenancing Egyptian and Minoan calcite-alabaster artifacts through 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratio and petrography
. Pp.
403
414
in:
ASMOSIA VI. Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone
 .
Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
,
Venice
, June 15-18-2000, (
L.
Lazzarini
, editor),
Bottega d’Erasmo
,
Padova
.
Birkle
,
P.
and
Satir
,
M.
(
1994
)
Geological Aspects of the use of Kestambol quartz-monzonite intrusion (Troas/Turkey) as a constructing material in archaeological sites around the Mediterranean sea
.
Studia Troica
 ,
4
,
143
155
.
Brentchaloff
,
D.
and
Mazeran
,
R.
(
1999
)
Exploitation antique de l’estérellite: mise au point petro-archéologique
.
Memoirs de l’Institut de préhistoire et d’archéologie Alpes Mediterranée
 ,
XLI
,
17
26
.
Brown
,
V.M.
and
Harrell
,
J.A.
(
1995
)
Topographical and petrological survey of ancient Roman quarries in the Eastern Desert of Egypt
. Pp.
221
234
in:
The Study of Marble and other Stones used in Antiquity
 .
ASMOSIA III, Transactions of the 3rd International Symposium
(
Y.
Maniatis
,
N.
Herz
and
Y.
Basiakos
, editors),
Archetype
,
London
.
Bruno
,
M.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1999
)
Discovery of the Sienese provenance of Breccia Dorata, and Breccia Gialla Fibrosa, and the origin of Breccia Rossa Appenninica
. Pp.
77
82
in:
Archéomatériaux, Marbres et Autres Roches
  (
M.
Schroerer
, editor).
Actes de la IV Conférence Internationale ASMOSIA, Bordeaux-Talence 9–13 October 1995
,
La Nef-Chastrusse, Bordeaux, France
.
Bruno
,
M.
,
Elçi
,
H.
,
Yavuz
,
A.B.
and
Attanasio
,
D.
(
2012
)
Unknown ancient marble quarries of western Asia Minor
. Pp.
562
572
in:
Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone
 ,
Proceedings of the IX ASMOSIA Conference
(
A.
Gutierrez Garcia
,
M.P.
Lapuente
and
I.
Roda
, editors), Tarragona 2009,
Industries Grafiques Gabriel Gilbert
,
Tarragona, Spain
.
Calogero
,
S.
,
Bertelle
,
M.
,
Antonelli
,
F.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2000
)
A Mössbauer study of some coloured marbles (cipollino mandolato, rosso antico and fior di pesco): implications on the nature of their colour
.
Journal of Cultural Heritage
 ,
1
,
429
444
.
Del Bufalo
,
D.
(
2012
)
Porphyry. Red Imperial Porphyry, Power and Religion
 .
Allemandi & C.
,
Turin, Italy
.
De Michele
,
V.
and
Zezza
,
U.
(
1979
)
Le pietre ornamentali di Roma Antica della Collezione Borromeo nel Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano
.
Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali
 ,
120
(
1-2
),
Milano
,
67
110
.
De Vecchi
,
G.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
,
Lnel
,
T.
,
Mignucci
,
A.
and
Visonà
,
D.
(
2000
)
The genesis and characterization of “Marmor Mysium” from Kozak (Turkey), a granite used in antiquity
.
Journal of Cultural Heritage
 ,
1
,
145
153
.
Falcone
R.
,
Lazzarini
L.
(
1998
)
Note storico-scientifiche sul broccatello di Spagna
. Pp.
87
97
in “
Marmi Antichi II, cave e tecnica di lavorazione, provenienze e distribuzione
” (
P.
Pensabene
, editor),
Studi Miscellanei
 ,
31
.
Galetti
,
G.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Maggetti
,
M.
(
1992
)
A first characterization of the most important granites used in antiquity
. Pp.
167
177
in:
Ancient Stones: Quarrying, Trade and Provenance. Acta Archaeologica Lovaniensia, 4
  (
M.
Waelkens
,
N.
Herz
and
L.
Moens
, editors),
Leuven University Press
,
Leuven, Belgium
.
Gnoli
,
R.
(
1988
)
Marmora Romana
 ,
2a Edizione, L’Elefante
,
Roma
.
Gorgoni
,
C.
,
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Pallante
,
P.
(
2002
)
New archaeometric data on Rosso Antico and other red marbles used in antiquity
. Pp.
199
206
in:
ASMOSIA VI. Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
,
Venice
, June 15–18, 2000 (
L.
Lazzarini
, editor),
Bottega d’Erasmo
,
Padova, Italy
.
Harrell
,
J.A.
,
Brown
,
V.M.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1999
)
Two newly discovered Roman quarries in the Eastern Desert of Egypt
. Pp.
285
292
in:
Archéomatériaux, Marbres et Autres Roches
  (
M.
Schroerer
, editor).
Actes de la IV Conférence Internationale. ASMOSIA, Bordeaux-Talence 9-13 oct. 1995, La Nef-Chastrusse
,
Bordeaux, France
.
Harrell
,
J.A.
and
Lazzarini
L.
(
2002
)
A new variety of granito bianco e nero from Wadi Barud, Egypt
. Pp.
47
51
in:
ASMOSIA 5, Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference
(
J. J.
Herrmann
, Jr.
,
N.
Herz
and
R.
Newman
, editors), Boston 1998,
Archetype
,
London
.
Harrell
,
J.A.
,
Brown
,
V.M.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2002
)
Breccia Verde Antica: sources, petrology and ancient uses
. Pp.
207
218
in:
ASMOSIA VI. Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
,
Venice
, June 15–18, 2000 (
L.
Lazzarini
, editor),
Bottega d’Erasmo
,
Padova, Italy
.
Hassan
,
M.A.
and
Hashad
A.H.
(
1990
)
Precambrian of Egypt
. Pp.
201
245
in:
The Geology of Egypt
  (
R.
Said
, editor),
Balkema, Rotterdam
,
The Netherlands
.
Herrmann
,
A.
(
1988
)
Rhodian red limestone sculptures
. Pp.
244
246
in
Kanon: Festschrift Ernst Berger zum 60. Geburtstag gewidmet
  (
M.
Schmidt
, editor).
Vereinigung der Freunde antiker Kunst
,
Basel
.
Herrmann
,
J.J.
,
van den Hoek
,
A.
and
Tykot
,
R.H.
(
2012
)
Alabastro a pecorelle, Ain Tekbalet, and Bou Hanifia, Algeria: a preliminary report
. Pp.
463
470
in:
Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone, Proceedings of the IX ASMOSIA Conference
(
A.
Gutierrez Garcia
,
M.P.
Lapuente
, and
I.
Roda
, editors). Tarragona 2009,
Industries Grafiques Gabriel Gilbert
,
Tarragona, spain
.
Kelany
,
A.
,
Negem
,
M.
,
Tohami
,
A.
and
Heldal
,
T.
(
2007
)
Granite quarry survey in the Aswan region, Egypt: shedding new light on ancient quarrying
. Pp.
87
98
in:
Quarryscapes: Ancient Stone Quarry Landscapes in the Eastern Mediterranean
 . Geological Survey of Norway, Special Publication,
12
.
Klemm
,
D.
and
Klemm
,
R.
(
1991
)
Calcit-alabaster oder travertin? Bemerkungen zu Sinn und Unsinn petrographischer Bezeichnungen in der Egyptologie
.
Göttinger Miszellen
 ,
122
,
57
70
.
Klemm
,
R.
and
Klemm
,
D.
(
2008
)
Stones and Quarries in Ancient Egypt
 .
The British Museum Press
,
London
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1987
)
I graniti dei monumenti italiani e i loro problemi di deterioramento
. Pp.
157
172
in: “Materiali lapidei, II” (
A.
Burreca
,
M.
Laurenzi Tabasso
and
G.
Palandri
, editors),
Bollettino D’Arte
 , Suppl.al N°4.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1992
)
Des pierres pour l’éternité: les granits utilisés dans l’antiquité classique
, in “Les marbres dans l’antiquité”,
Les Dossiers d’Archéologie
 ,
173
,
58
67
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1994
)
Lapis sarcophagus: an historical and scientific note
. Pp.
103
116
in: “Conservazione del Patrimonio Culturale”, Contributi del Centro Linceo Interdisciplinare “Beniamino Segre”,
Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei
,
Roma
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1998
)
Sul marmo misio, uno dei graniti più usati anticamente
, in “
Marmi Antichi II, cave e tecnica di lavorazione, provenienze e distribuzione
” (
P.
Pensabene
, editor).
Studi Miscellanei
 ,
31
,
111
117
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2002a
)
La determinazione della provenienza delle pietre decorative usate dai romani
. Pp.
223
225
in:
I marmi colorati della Roma imperiale
  (
M.
De Nuccio
and
L.
Ungaro
, editors).
Marsilio
,
Veggiano
(PD).
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2002b
)
Di alcune pietre inedite e rare della Basilica di San Marco a Venezia
. Pp.
107
115
in:
Hadriatica. Scritti in onore di Wladimiro Dorigo
  (
E.
Concina
,
G.
Trovabene
and
M.
Agazzi
, editors).
Il Poligrafo
,
Padova, Italy
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2002c
) The origin and characterization of
breccia nuvolata, marmor Sagarium
 , and
marmor Triponticum
 . Pp.
58
67
in:
ASMOSIA 5, Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference
(
J.J.
Herrmann
, Jr.
,
N.
Herz
and
R.
Newman
, editors) Boston 1998.
Archetype
,
London
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2004
)
Archaeometric aspects of white and coloured marbles used in antiquity: the state of the art
.
Periodico di Mineralogia
 ,
73
,
113
125
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2005
)
Un marmo francese a Venezia
. Pp.
61
71
in:
Der unbestechliche Blick, Lo sguardo incorruttibile. Festschrift zu Ehren von Wolfgang Wolters
  (
M.
Gaier
and
U.
Nicolai
, editors),
Porta Alba Verlag
,
Trier
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2007
)
Poikiloi Lithoi, Versiculores Maculae
 , I marmi colorati della Grecia Antica, Storia,uso, diffusione, cave, geologia, caratterizzazione scientifica, archeometria, deterioramento,
Fabrizio Serra Editore
,
Pisa-Roma
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2009
)
The distribution and re-use of the coloured marbles in the Roman Empire
. Pp.
459
484
in:
Proceedings of ASMOSIA VII
(
Y.
Maniatis
, editor).
Bulletin de Correspondance Hellénique
 , Supplement
51
,
De Boccard
,
Paris-Athènes
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Çolak
,
M.
(
2002
)
Quarries and characterization of a hitherto unknown alabaster and marble from Thyatira (Akhisar, Turkey)
. Pp.
35
40
in:
ASMOSIA VI. Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone, Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference
,
Venice
, June 15–18, 2000, (
L.
Lazzarini
, editor),
Bottega d’Erasmo
,
Padova, Italy
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Mariottini
,
M.
(
2012
)
A first study of some lumachelle (fossiliferous stones) used in Roman antiquity
. Pp.
445
451
in:
Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone
 .
Proceedings of the IX ASMOSIA Conference
(
A.
Gutierrez Garcia
,
M.P.
Lapuente
, and
I.
Roda
, editors), Tarragona 2009,
Industries Grafiques Gabriel Gilbert
,
Tarragona, Spain
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Sangati
,
C.
(
2004
)
I più importanti marmi e pietre colorati usati dagli antichi
. Pp.
73
100
in:
Pietre e marmi antichi. Natura, caratterizzazione, origine, storia d’uso, diffusione, collezionismo
  (
L.
Lazzarini
, editor),
CEDAM
,
Castenaso (BO)
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
and
Visonà
,
D.
(
2009
)
Lapis sarcophagus and the provenance of its Mediterranean sarcophagi
. Pp.
369
388
in:
LEUKOS LITHOS, Marbres et autres roches de la Méditerranée: etudes interdisciplinaires
 , Actes du VIIIe Coll. Internationale de l’ASMOSIA (
Ph.
Jockey
, editor), Aix-en-Provence 12–18 June, 2006,
Maisonneuve & Larose
,
Paris
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
,
Villa
,
I.M.
and
Visonà
,
D.
(
2006
)
Caratterizzazione e identificazione di alabastri usati in antico
. Pp.
273
281
in:
Archeometria del Costruito. L’edificato storico: materiali, strutture e rischio sismico
  (
G.M.
Crisci
and
C.
Gattuso
, editors),.
Edipuglia
,
Bari, Italy
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
,
Agus
,
M.
and
Cara
,
S.
(
2007
)
The ancient quarries of the Neri Antichi (black limestones) from Zeugitania (Tunisia)
.
Marmora
 ,
2
(
2006
),
59
70
.
Lazzarini
,
L.
,
Visonà
,
D.
,
Giamello
,
M.
and
Villa
,
I.
(
2012
)
Archaeometric characterisation of one Tunisian and two Italian calcareous alabasters used in antiquity
. Pp.
436
444
in:
Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone
 .
Proceedings of the IX ASMOSIA Conference
(
A.
Gutierrez Garcia
,
M.P.
Lapuente
and
I.
Roda
, editors), Tarragona 2009,
Industries Grafiques Gabriel Gilbert
,
Tarragona
.
Lucas
,
A.
and
Rowe
,
A.
(
1938
)
The ancient Egyptian bekhen-stone
.
Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte
 ,
38
,
127
156
.
Maccioni
,
L.
,
Oppi
,
G.
and
Rossetti
,
V.
(
1968
)
Osservazioni geo-petrografiche sui graniti di Capo Testa
.
Resoconti Associazione Mineraria Sarda
 , LXXIII,
8
,
5
49
.
Makovicky
,
E.
,
Frei
,
R.
,
Karup-Moller
,
S.
and
Bailey
,
J.
(
2016a
)
Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt, Part I, Mineralogy, Petrology, Geochemistry, use and occurrence
,
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abh
 .,
193
,
1
27
.
Makovicky
,
E.
,
Frei
,
R.
,
Bailey
,
J.
and
Karup-Moller
,
S.
(
2016b
)
Imperial porphyry from Gebel Abu Dokhan, the Red Sea Mountains, Egypt, Part II, Geochemistry
.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen
 ,
193
(
1
),
29
44
.
Marinelli
,
G.
(
1965
)
Le intrusioni terziarie dell’isola d’Elba
.
Atti della Società toscana di Scienze Naturali
 , serie A,
66
,
50
253
.
Maxfield
,
V.
and
Peacock
,
D.
(
2001
)
The Roman imperial quarries. Survey and excavation at Mons Porphyrites, 1994–1998, Vol. 1: Topography and Quarries
 .
Egypt Exploration Society
,
London
.
Mazeran
,
R.
(
2004
)
Les granitoides employés en decoration dans les monuments romaines et paléochrétiens du Sud-Est de la France
. Pp.
219
230
in:
Carrières et Constructions en France et dans les pays limitrophes. IV
  (
J.
Lorenz
and
J.-P.
Gély
, editors).
Editions du Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques
,
Toulouse
.
Melfos
,
V.
(
2008
)
Green Thessalian Stone: the Byzantine quarries and the use of a unique architecture material from Larisa area, Greece. Petrographic and geochemical characterization
.
Oxford Journal of Archaeology
 ,
27
,
387
405
.
Mielsch
,
H.
(
1985
)
Buntmarmore aus Rom im Antikenmuseum Berlin
 .
Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz
,
Berlin
.
Muñoz i Sebastià
,
J.H.
and
Rovira i Gómez
,
S.J.
(
1997
)
La industria del Jaspi de Tortosa a l’etad moderna (segles XVI-XVII)
.
Nous Colloquis I, Tortosa
 ,
33
55
.
Peacock
,
D.P.S.
and
Maxfield
,
V.
(
1997
)
Mons Claudianus, Survey and excavations 1987–1993, Vol. I Topography and quarries
.
Institut Francais d’Archéologie Orientale, Fouilles de L’IFAO 37
,
Cairo
.
Pensabene
,
P.
(
2014
)
I marmi nella Roma antica
 .
Carocci editore
,
Roma
.
Pensabene
,
P.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
1998
)
Il problema del Bigio Antico e del Bigio Morato: contributo allo studio delle cave di Teos e di Chios
. Pp.
142
173
in:
Marmi Antichi II, cave e tecnica di lavorazione, provenienze e distribuzione
  (
P.
Pensabene
, editor),
Studi Miscellanei
 ,
31
.
Pentecost
,
A.
(
2010
)
Travertine
 .
Springer Verlag
,
Berlin
-Heidelberg.
Pe-Piper
,
G.
and
Kotopouli
,
C.N.
(
1981
)
Very low grade metamorphism of Triassic volcanic, West Hellenic nappes, southern Peloponnese, Greece
.
Geological Society of America Bulletin
 ,
92
,
1762
1806
.
Poggi
,
D.
and
Lazzarini
,
L.
(
2005
)
II granito sardo: cave e cavatura, usi, diffusione e aspetti archeometrici
,
Marmora
 ,
1
,
49
68
.
Ponti
,
G.
(
1995
)
Marmor troadense. Granite quarries in the Troad
.
Studia Troica
 ,
5
,
291
320
.
Price
,
M.
(
2007
)
Decorative Stone. The Complete Sourcebook
 .
Thames and Hudson
,
London
.
Rakob
,
F.
(
1993
)
Simitthus I
 .
Die Steinbrche und die antike Stadt
,
Mainz am Rhein, Germany
.
Rehault
,
J.P.
,
Hontlaas
,
C.
,
Guennoc
,
P.
,
Bellon
,
H.
,
Ruffet
,
G.
,
Cotton
,
J.
,
Sosson
,
M.
and
Maury
,
R.C.
(
2012
)
Offshore Oligo-Miocene volcanic fields within Corsica-Liguria Basin: magmatic diversity and slab evolution in the Western Mediterranean sea
.
Journal of Geodynamics
 ,
58
,
73
95
.
Roda
,
I.
(
1997
)
Los marmoles romanos de Hispania
.
Histria Antiqua
 ,
3
,
47
56
.
Russell
,
B.
and
Fachard
,
S.
(
2012
)
New work on quarrying in the territory of Eretria, Euboea
. Pp.
612
618
in:
Interdisciplinary Studies on Ancient Stone. Proceedings of the IX ASMOSIA Conference
(
A.
Gutierrez Garcia
,
M.P.
Lapuente
and
I
Roda
, editors), Tarragona 2009,
Industries Grafiques Gabriel Gilbert
,
Tarragona
.
Shaw
,
I.
(
2010
)
Hatnub: quarrying travertine in ancient Egypt
.
Egypt Exploration Society
,
Hainault, Essex
.
Tedeschi Grisanti
,
G.
(
1992
)
Il granito dell’Elba a Pisa: uso e riuso nell’XI e XII secolo
. Pp.
43
51
in:
Niveo de Marmore. L’uso artistico del marmo di Carrara dall’XI al XV secolo
  (
E.
Castelnuovo
, editor).
Edizioni Colombo
,
Genova, Italy
.
Ward-Perkins
,
J. B.
(
1992
)
“Africano” marble and “Lapis Sarcophagus”
. Pp.
55
60
in:
Marble in Antiquity. Collected papers of J.B. Ward-Perkins
 , Archaeological Monographs of the British School at Rome 6 (
H.
Dodge
and
B.
Ward-Perkins
, editors),
Whitstable Litho
,
Kent
.
Willis
,
K.M.
,
Stern
,
R.J.
and
Clauer
,
N.
(
1988
)
Age and geochemistry of Late Precambrian sediments of the Hammamat Series from the Northeastern desert of Egypt
.
Precambrian Research
 ,
42
,
173
187
.
Wilson
,
R.J.A.
(
1988
)
Ancient granite quarries on the Bocche di Bonifacio
. Pp.
103
112
in:
Classical Marble: Geochemistry, Technology, Trade
  (
N.
Herz
and
M.
Waelkens
, editors). Nato ASI Series 153,
Kluwers, Dordrecht-Boston
,
London
.
Zagrami
,
M.F.
,
Gaied
,
M.E.
and
Chaabani
,
F.
(
2000
)
Petrographie des roches marbrieres de Tunisie
. Pp.
73
76
in:
Les pierres marbrieres de Tunisie, Annales des mines et de geologie
 ,
38
.
La Charguia
,
Tunis
.

Figures & Tables

Figure 1.

Geographic location of the quarries of magmatic extrusive (red) and intrusive (blue) rocks reported in the catalogue.

Figure 1.

Geographic location of the quarries of magmatic extrusive (red) and intrusive (blue) rocks reported in the catalogue.

Figure 2.

As for Fig.1, but for sedimentary (red) and metamorphic (blue) rocks.

Figure 2.

As for Fig.1, but for sedimentary (red) and metamorphic (blue) rocks.

Contents