The crustal structure of the Himalaya: A synthesis
Published:October 08, 2019
This chapter examines the along-arc variation in the crustal structure of the Himalayan Mountain Range. Using results from published seismological studies, plus large teleseismic body-wave and surface-wave datasets which we analyse, we illustrate the along-arc variation by comparing the crustal properties beneath four representative areas of the Himalayan Mountain Range: the Western Syntaxis, the Garhwal–Kumaon, the Eastern Nepal–Sikkim, and the Bhutan–Northeastern India regions. The Western Syntaxis and the Bhutan–Northeastern India regions have a complicated structure extending far out in front of the main Range, whereas the Central Himalaya appear to have a much simpler structure. The deformation is more distributed beneath the western and eastern ends of the Range, but in general, the crust gradually thickens from c. 40 km on the southern side of the Foreland Basin to c. 80 km beneath the Tethys Himalaya. While the gross crustal structure of much of the Himalaya is becoming better known, our understanding of the internal structure of the Himalaya is still sketchy. The detailed geometry of the Main Himalayan Thrust and the role of the secondary structures on the underthrusting Indian Plate are yet to be characterized satisfactorily.
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Himalayan Tectonics: A Modern Synthesis
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
The Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet mountain belt resulted from Cenozoic collision of India and Asia and is frequently used as the type example of a continental collision orogenic belt. The last quarter of a century has seen the publication of a remarkably detailed dataset relevant to the evolution of this belt. Detailed fieldwork backed up by state-of-the-art structural analysis, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, igneous and metamorphic petrology, isotope chemistry, sedimentology and geophysics produced a wide-ranging archive of data-rich scientific papers. The rationale for this book is to provide a coherent overview of these datasets in addressing the evolution of the mountain ranges we see today.
This volume comprises 21 specially invited review papers on the Himalaya, Kohistan arc, Tibet, the Karakoram and Pamir ranges. These papers span the history of Himalayan research, chronology of the collision, stratigraphy, magmatic and metamorphic processes, structural geology and tectonics, seismicity, geophysics, and the evolution of the Indian monsoon. This landmark set of papers should underpin the next 25 years of Himalayan research.