Published:October 08, 2019
Reconstruction of the protolith lithostratigraphy of amphibolite-facies metasedimentary rocks of the Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) in Nepal documents a single, long-lived passive-margin succession that was deposited along the northern margin of the Indian Craton. In the Langtang area, Paleoproterozoic gneisses are unconformably overlain by a succession of upper Neoproterozoic–Ordovician fluvio-deltaic quartzite, basinal pelite and psammitic beds that grade upsection into micaceous semipelite and pelite. U–Pb zircon geochronology yields maximum depositional ages between c. 815 and 460 Ma for the GHS in Langtang. Regional variations in the composition and thickness of the GHS along the length of the Himalaya are attributed to siliciclastic depocentres centred on Zanskar in northern India, Langtang and Everest in central to western Nepal, which contrast with coeval marine carbonate shelf deposition in the Annapurna region. The protolith lithostratigraphy documented for Langtang provides a coherent framework for interpreting subsequent Cenozoic Himalayan deformation, specifically the homogeneously distributed layer-normal shortening (i.e. flattening) and layer-parallel stretching (i.e. transport-parallel stretching) that characterizes the GHS. Within the context of a single protracted northern Indian marginal sedimentary succession, the distinction between the Lesser, Greater and Tethyan Himalaya is structural rather than lithostratigraphic in origin.
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Himalayan Tectonics: A Modern Synthesis
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
The Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet mountain belt resulted from Cenozoic collision of India and Asia and is frequently used as the type example of a continental collision orogenic belt. The last quarter of a century has seen the publication of a remarkably detailed dataset relevant to the evolution of this belt. Detailed fieldwork backed up by state-of-the-art structural analysis, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, igneous and metamorphic petrology, isotope chemistry, sedimentology and geophysics produced a wide-ranging archive of data-rich scientific papers. The rationale for this book is to provide a coherent overview of these datasets in addressing the evolution of the mountain ranges we see today.
This volume comprises 21 specially invited review papers on the Himalaya, Kohistan arc, Tibet, the Karakoram and Pamir ranges. These papers span the history of Himalayan research, chronology of the collision, stratigraphy, magmatic and metamorphic processes, structural geology and tectonics, seismicity, geophysics, and the evolution of the Indian monsoon. This landmark set of papers should underpin the next 25 years of Himalayan research.