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This chapter summarizes the available stratigraphic, petrographical and mineralogical evidence from sediments and sedimentary rocks on the evolution of the Himalayan belt and its associated foreland basin. The use of compositional signatures of modern sediments to unravel provenance changes and palaeodrainage evolution through time is hampered by a poor match with detrital modes of ancient strata markedly affected by selective chemical dissolution of unstable minerals during diagenesis. Only semi-quantitative diagnoses can thus be attempted. Volcanic detritus derived from Transhimalayan arcs since India–Asia collision onset at c. 60 Ma was deposited onto the Indian lower plate throughout the Protohimalayan stage,...

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