Michael P. Searle, 2019. "Timing of subduction initiation, arc formation, ophiolite obduction and India–Asia collision in the Himalaya", Himalayan Tectonics: A Modern Synthesis, P. J. Treloar, M. P. Searle
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Reconstruction of the Western Himalaya requires three subduction systems operating beneath the Spong arc, Dras–Kohistan arc and the Asian continent during the Late Cretaceous–Paleocene. The timing of the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean along the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) in Ladakh and south Tibet has been proposed to be as old as c. 65 Ma and as young as c. 37 Ma. The definition of the India–Asia collision can span >15 myr from the first touching of Indian continental crust with Asian crust to the final marine sedimentation between the two plates. There is good geological evidence for a Late Cretaceous–Early Paleocene phase of folding, thrusting and crustal thickening of Indian Plate shelf carbonates associated with obduction of ophiolites. There is no geological evidence of any oceanic ‘Greater Indian Basin’ separating the northern Tethyan and Greater Himalaya from India. There is clear evidence to support final ending of marine sedimentation along the ISZ at 50 Ma (planktonic foraminifera zone P7–P8). There is no evidence for diachroneity of collision along the Pakistan–Ladakh–South Tibet Himalaya. The timing of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism cannot be used to constrain India–Asia collision, and the timing of high-grade kyanite- and sillimanite-grade metamorphism along the Greater Himalaya can only give a minimum age of collision.
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Himalayan Tectonics: A Modern Synthesis
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
The Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet mountain belt resulted from Cenozoic collision of India and Asia and is frequently used as the type example of a continental collision orogenic belt. The last quarter of a century has seen the publication of a remarkably detailed dataset relevant to the evolution of this belt. Detailed fieldwork backed up by state-of-the-art structural analysis, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, igneous and metamorphic petrology, isotope chemistry, sedimentology and geophysics produced a wide-ranging archive of data-rich scientific papers. The rationale for this book is to provide a coherent overview of these datasets in addressing the evolution of the mountain ranges we see today.
This volume comprises 21 specially invited review papers on the Himalaya, Kohistan arc, Tibet, the Karakoram and Pamir ranges. These papers span the history of Himalayan research, chronology of the collision, stratigraphy, magmatic and metamorphic processes, structural geology and tectonics, seismicity, geophysics, and the evolution of the Indian monsoon. This landmark set of papers should underpin the next 25 years of Himalayan research.