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Reconstruction of the Western Himalaya requires three subduction systems operating beneath the Spong arc, Dras–Kohistan arc and the Asian continent during the Late Cretaceous–Paleocene. The timing of the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean along the Indus Suture Zone (ISZ) in Ladakh and south Tibet has been proposed to be as old as c. 65 Ma and as young as c. 37 Ma. The definition of the India–Asia collision can span >15 myr from the first touching of Indian continental crust with Asian crust to the final marine sedimentation between the two plates. There is good geological evidence for a...

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