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Indian basement faults, which bound three orogen-perpendicular palaeotopographic ridges of Precambrian Indian basement south of the Himalaya, extend to the base of the Indian lithosphere and to the northern extent of the Indian lithosphere underneath Tibet. In the eastern Himalaya, the active orogen-perpendicular Yadong–Gulu graben is aligned with an earthquake-generating strike-slip fault in the high Himalaya. We argue that the graben results from crustal necking during reactivation of the underplated basement fault. In the central Himalaya, along-strike diachronous deformation and metamorphism within the Himalayan metamorphic core, as well as lateral ramps in the foreland thrust belt, spatially correspond to...

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