Skip to Main Content
Skip Nav Destination


The present study reports and investigates ‘lazulite’ occurring in the vicinity of a highly tectonized zone of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the Himalaya. The azure blue lazulite, hosted in quartz veins, occurs in fractured Berinag quartzite, which forms the footwall of the MCT near Sobla village in NE Kumaun Himalaya, India. Lazulite was investigated using SEM-EDX, micro Raman spectroscopy, fluid inclusion microthermometry and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Lazulite contains inclusions of rutile and hematite and has Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios of 0.86 to 0.90. The phosphorus in lazulite shows a negative trend with Mg+Al contents. This lazulite is an intermediate solid solution near the lazulite end-member with a cationic composition in the structural formula: Mg0.81–0.89Fe0.10–0.13 Al1.88–1.98P2.00–2.07. Its composition in the lazulite–scorzalite stability field points to a higher temperature of its formation. Fluids trapped as inclusions in lazulite and the associated quartz are generally C–O–H fluid. The fluid inclusion isochors for lazulite, together with the temperature calculated for metamorphism of the equivalent structural level in the adjacent area suggest 500–600°C and 7.25 to 9.25 kbar, which match the peak metamorphic temperature–pressure derived elsewhere for the Higher Himalayan Crystallines. Moderately enriched δD‰ values and H2O–CO2–low NaCl fluid suggest that water from a deep reservoir, more likely a metamorphic fluid, participated in lazulite formation. Classic sigmoidal fluid inclusions in lazulite reveal their development during MCT shearing, whereas the overpressured fluid inclusions suggest a post-lazulite uplift. The MCT lazulite is interpreted to have formed during Himalayan shearing and concurrent metamorphism. The present study also implies that this refractory mineral can sustain fluid inclusions within it against intense deformation conditions, such as in the MCT.

You do not currently have access to this chapter.

Figures & Tables




Citing Books via

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal