Dating protracted fault activities: microstructures, microchemistry and geochronology of the Vaikrita Thrust, Main Central Thrust zone, Garhwal Himalaya, NW India
Published:September 25, 2019
Chiara Montemagni, Chiara Montomoli, Salvatore Iaccarino, Rodolfo Carosi, Arvind K. Jain, Hans-J. Massonne, Igor M. Villa, 2019. "Dating protracted fault activities: microstructures, microchemistry and geochronology of the Vaikrita Thrust, Main Central Thrust zone, Garhwal Himalaya, NW India", Crustal Architecture and Evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet Orogen, Rajesh Sharma, Igor M. Villa, Santosh Kumar
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The timing of shearing along the Vaikrita Thrust, the upper structural boundary of the Main Central Thrust Zone in the Garhwal Himalaya, was constrained by combined microstructural, microchemical and geochronological investigations. Three different biotite–muscovite growth and recrystallization episodes were observed: a relict mica-1; mica-2 along the main mylonitic foliation; and mica-3 in coronitic structures around garnet during its breakdown. Electron microprobe analyses of biotite showed chloritization and a bimodal composition of biotite-2 in one sample. Muscovite-2 and muscovite-3 differed in composition from each other. Biotite and muscovite 39Ar–40Ar age spectra from all samples showed both inter- and intra-sample discrepancies. Biotite step-ages ranged between 8.6 and 16 Ma and muscovite step-ages between 3.6 and 7.8 Ma. These ages cannot be interpreted as ‘cooling ages’ because samples from the same outcrop cooled simultaneously. Instead, the Ar systematics reflect sample-specific recrystallization markers. Intergrown impurities were diagnosed by the Ca/K ratios. The age data of biotite were interpreted as a mixture of true biotite-2 (9.00 ± 0.10 Ma) and two alteration products. The negative Cl/K–age correlation identified a Cl-poor muscovite-2 (>7 Ma) and a Cl-rich, post-deformational, coronitic muscovite-3 grown at ≤5.88 ± 0.03 Ma. The Vaikrita Thrust was active at least from 9 to 6 Ma at c. 600°C; its movement had ended by 6 Ma.
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Crustal Architecture and Evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet Orogen
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This volume comprises 17 contributions that address the architecture and geodynamic evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet (HKT) system, covering wide aspects, from the active seismicity of the present day to the remnants of the Proterozoic orogen. The articles investigate the HKT system at different scales, blending field research with laboratory studies. The role of various lithospheric components and their inheritance in the geodynamic and magmatic evolution of the HKT system through time, and their links to global geological events, are studied in the field. The laboratory research focuses on the (sub-)micrometre scale, detailing micro-structural geology, crystal chemistry, geochronology, and the study of circulating fluids, their preservation (trapped in fluid inclusions) and their evolution, distribution, migration and interaction with the solid host. An orogen over 2000 km long can be understood only if the processes at the nanometre and micrometre scales are taken into account. The contributions in this volume successfully combine these scales to enhance our understanding of the HKT system.