Seismotectonics of central and NW Himalaya: plate boundary–wedge thrust earthquakes in thin- and thick-skinned tectonic framework
Published:September 25, 2019
V. C. Thakur, R. Jayangondaperumal, V. Joevivek, 2019. "Seismotectonics of central and NW Himalaya: plate boundary–wedge thrust earthquakes in thin- and thick-skinned tectonic framework", Crustal Architecture and Evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet Orogen, Rajesh Sharma, Igor M. Villa, Santosh Kumar
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The tectonic framework of NW Himalaya is different from that of the central Himalaya with respect to the position of the Main Central Thrust and Higher Himalayan Crystalline and the Lesser and Sub Himalayan structures. The former is characterized by thick-skinned tectonics, whereas the thin-skinned model explains the tectonic evolution of the central Himalaya. The boundary between the two segments of Himalaya is recognized along the Ropar–Manali lineament fault zone. The normal convergence rate within the Himalaya decreases from c. 18 mm a−1 in the central to c. 15 mm a−1 in the NW segments. In the last 800 years of historical accounts of large earthquakes of magnitude Mw ≥ 7, there are seven earthquakes clustered in the central Himalaya, whereas three reported earthquakes are widely separated in the NW Himalaya. The earthquakes in central Himalaya are inferred as occurring over the plate boundary fault, the Main Himalayan Thrust. The wedge thrust earthquakes in NW Himalaya originate over the faults on the hanging wall of the Main Himalayan Thrust. Palaeoseismic evidence recorded on the Himalayan front suggests the occurrence of giant earthquakes in the central Himalaya. The lack of such an event reported in the NW Himalaya may be due to oblique convergence.
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Crustal Architecture and Evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet Orogen
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
This volume comprises 17 contributions that address the architecture and geodynamic evolution of the Himalaya–Karakoram–Tibet (HKT) system, covering wide aspects, from the active seismicity of the present day to the remnants of the Proterozoic orogen. The articles investigate the HKT system at different scales, blending field research with laboratory studies. The role of various lithospheric components and their inheritance in the geodynamic and magmatic evolution of the HKT system through time, and their links to global geological events, are studied in the field. The laboratory research focuses on the (sub-)micrometre scale, detailing micro-structural geology, crystal chemistry, geochronology, and the study of circulating fluids, their preservation (trapped in fluid inclusions) and their evolution, distribution, migration and interaction with the solid host. An orogen over 2000 km long can be understood only if the processes at the nanometre and micrometre scales are taken into account. The contributions in this volume successfully combine these scales to enhance our understanding of the HKT system.