Shear-zone hosted gold mineralization of the Arabian–Nubian Shield: devolatilization processes across the greenschist–amphibolite-facies transition
Published:April 17, 2019
Tamer Abu-Alam, Mohamed Abd El Monsef, Eugene Grosch, 2019. "Shear-zone hosted gold mineralization of the Arabian–Nubian Shield: devolatilization processes across the greenschist–amphibolite-facies transition", Metamorphic Geology: Microscale to Mountain Belts, Silvio Ferrero, Pierre Lanari, Philippe Goncalves, Eugene G. Grosch
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Orogenic gold ores of the Arabian–Nubian Shield are structurally controlled by the Najd Fault System. The Najd Fault System controlled the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes and, as such, there is a genetic relationship between the metamorphism and the formation of the orogenic gold ores. In order to constrain this genetic relationship, field observations, petrography, geochemistry and fluid inclusions of four mines from the Egyptian side of the shield are presented. The studied gold-bearing dykes and veins are structurally controlled where the gold-bearing fluid precipitated in pre-existing second-order and third-order extensional faults of the major NW–SE Najd Fault System. Fluid inclusions indicate that the gold was precipitated at shallow- to medium-crustal levels, equivalent to a temperature range of 250–350°C, and from low salinity metamorphic fluids, possibly mixed with magmatic/meteoric water. Thermodynamic modelling suggests that gold-bearing fluids were generated due to metamorphic devolatilization processes across the greenschist–amphibolite-facies transition of ophiolitic and metasedimentary source rocks. The Najd Fault System enables the vertical transport of gold-bearing fluids from the source region to the depositional sites. Decreasing the temperature of the fluid is required to precipitate the gold. However, the gold precipitation process needs to be buffered by Fe-bearing wall rocks.
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Metamorphic Geology: Microscale to Mountain Belts
CONTAINS OPEN ACCESS
In Earth evolution, mountain belts are the loci of crustal growth, reworking and recycling. These crustal-scale processes are unravelled through microscale investigations of textures and mineral assemblages of metamorphic rocks. Multiple episodes of metamorphism, re-equilibration and deformation, however, generally produce a complex and tightly interwoven pattern of microstructures and assemblages. Over the last two decades, the combination of advanced computing and technological capabilities with new concepts has provided a vast array of novel petrological tools and high-resolution/high-sensitivity techniques for microanalysis and imaging. Such novel approaches are proving fundamental to untangling the enigma represented by metamorphism with an unprecedented level of detail and confidence. As a result, the first decade and a half of this century has already seen the tumultuous development of new research avenues in metamorphic petrology. This book aims to provide a timely overview of the state of the art of this field, of newly developed petrological techniques, future advancements and significant new case studies.