Geohazard assessment related to submarine instabilities in Bjørnafjorden, Norway
Published:September 30, 2019
Brian Carlton, Maarten Vanneste, Carl Fredrik Forsberg, Siren Knudsen, Finn Løvholt, Tore Kvalstad, Søren Holm, Heidi Kjennbakken, Muhammad Adeel Mazhar, Samson Degago, Haflidi Haflidason, 2019. "Geohazard assessment related to submarine instabilities in Bjørnafjorden, Norway", Subaqueous Mass Movements and their Consequences: Assessing Geohazards, Environmental Implications and Economic Significance of Subaqueous Landslides, D.G. Lintern, D.C. Mosher, L.G. Moscardelli, P.T. Bobrowsky, C. Campbell, J. Chaytor, J. Clague, A. Georgiopoulou, P. Lajeunesse, A. Normandeau, D. Piper, M. Scherwath, C. Stacey, D. Turmel
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This paper presents the geohazard assessment for a proposed bridge across Bjørnafjorden in western Norway. The fjord is c. 5 km wide with a maximum depth of 550 m at the proposed bridge crossing. The main geohazards of concern are submarine slope instabilities. To identify locations of instability, their susceptibility to failure, and their potential runout distances, we performed the following analyses: (1) static and pseudo-static limit equilibrium analyses for the entire fjord crossing area; (2) 1D seismic slope stability sensitivity analyses for different slope angles and soil depths; (3) 2D static and pseudo-static finite element analyses for selected profiles; (4) back-analysis of a palaeolandslide; and (5) quasi-2D and quasi-3D landslide dynamic simulations calibrated using results from the back-analysis. The workflow progresses from simplified to more advanced analyses focusing on the most critical locations. The results show that the soils in many locations of the fjord are potentially unstable and could be the loci of landslides and debris flows. The evidence of numerous palaeosubmarine landslides identified on geophysical records reinforces this conclusion. However, the landslide triggers and timing are currently unknown. This paper demonstrates the need for comprehensive and multidisciplinary geohazard analyses for any infrastructure projects conducted in fjords.
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Subaqueous Mass Movements and their Consequences: Assessing Geohazards, Environmental Implications and Economic Significance of Subaqueous Landslides
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The challenges facing submarine mass movement researchers and engineers are plentiful and exciting. This book follows several high-profile submarine landslide disasters that have reached the world's attention over the past few years. For decades, researchers have been mapping the world's mass movements. Their significant impacts on the Earth by distributing sediment on phenomenal scales is undeniable. Their importance in the origins of buried resources has long been understood. Their hazard potential ranges from damaging to apocalyptic, frequently damaging local infrastructure and sometimes devastating whole coastlines. Moving beyond mapping advances, the subaqueous mass movement scientists and practitioners are now also focussed on assessing the consequences of mass movements, and the measurement and modelling of events, hazard analysis and mitigation. Many state-of-the-art examples are provided in this book, which is produced under the auspices of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation Program S4SLIDE (Significance of Modern and Ancient Submarine Slope LandSLIDEs).