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We synthesize geologic observations with new isotopic evidence for the timing and magnitude of uplift for the central Andes between 22°S and 26°S since the Paleocene. To estimate paleoelevations, we used the stable isotopic composition of carbonates and volcanic glass, combined with another paleoelevation indicator for the central Andes: the distribution of evaporites. Paleoelevation reconstruction using clumped isotope paleothermometry failed due to resetting during burial.

The Andes at this latitude rose and broadened eastward in three stages during the Cenozoic. The first, in what is broadly termed the “Incaic” orogeny, ended by the late Eocene, when magmatism and deformation had...

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