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This book is the result of a Geological Society of America Penrose Conference that was held in late September 2017 in Apiro in the Marches region, central Italy. The objective of the meeting was to present an updated vision of 250 million years of Earth history as recorded in the sedimentary succession of the northern Apennine orogeny in central Italy. The occasion for the timing of the conference was the 25th anniversary of the Geological Observatory of Coldigioco (OGC), an independent research and educational center, which was founded in an abandoned medieval hamlet near Apiro in 1992. A short history of OGC and the geology of the region (a major reason for the location of the OGC) is given in the introductory chapter by its founder and director, Alessandro Montanari. The conference was attended by more than 50 delegates from 11 countries (Australia, Austria, Belgium, China, Croatia, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK, and USA), including seven students, who presented original research and reviews in the form of keynote, oral, and poster presentations, covering specific subjects related to topics in tectonics and structural geology, integrated stratigraphy and astronomical tuning, extraterrestrial event stratigraphy, and Quaternary geology and geo-bio speleology. Besides enjoying a vibrant three-day conference at the historic Teatro Mestica in the medieval hilltop town of Apiro and a big anniversary celebration in Coldigioco, meeting attendees also participated in two field trips to classic geological sites (to Gubbio, where the K-Pg asteroid impact hypothesis started, and to the Frasassi caves, the largest show caves in Italy), plus an optional field trip to Massignano near Monte Conero, the location of the global stratotype section and point of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary and where abundance evidence of the late Eocene impacts can be found.

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