The Parnaíba cratonic basin: lithospheric and crustal structure
2018. "The Parnaíba cratonic basin: lithospheric and crustal structure", Cratonic Basin Formation: A Case Study of the Parnaíba Basin of Brazil, M. C. Daly, R. A. Fuck, J. Julià, D.I.M. MacDonald, A. B. Watts
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The Parnaíba Basin is a Phanerozoic intracontinental basin within the South America plate, lying on top of and within Precambrian terranes. The Parnaíba Basin Analysis Program wide-angle reflection–refraction (WARR) lies east–west and is 1150 km long profile crossing the basin and its margins. The WARR results show that the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile consist of the Amazonian Craton and Borborema Province, and the Grajaú and Teresina domains comprising the Parnaíba block hidden below the sedimentary cover of the basin itself. The lithospheric characteristics of the Parnaíba block and their differences from the adjacent Precambrian Amazonian Craton and Borborema Province elucidate some aspects of the present day existence of the sedimentary basin covering it. Important elements include the presence of a high mantle velocity and high-velocity lowermost crustal region, interpreted as linked to the intrusion of mafic material into the crust underlying the Grajaú domain, and indications that the crust in this area has been intruded since its consolidation in the Neoproterozoic. It is tentatively proposed that magmatism is related to the inferred thinning of the lower crust of the Teresina and Borborema segments of the profile, with this, in turn, linked to Cretaceous extensional tectonics and the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean.
Supplementary material: Datasets and ray-tracing modelling for all 20 shot gather seismic sections from the WARR experiment of the Parnaíba Basin. Available at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.c.4058582
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Cratonic Basin Formation: A Case Study of the Parnaíba Basin of Brazil
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Cratonic basins are large, distinctive features of the continental crust. They are preferentially developed on thick continental lithosphere, are typically sub-circular in shape and subside over periods of hundreds of millions of years. They are also endowed with significant resources. However, in spite of their location in continental interiors and often well-known geology, the subsidence driving mechanism and tectonic setting of these basins remains controversial.
This volume presents both lithospheric and basin scale datasets acquired specifically to interrogate the tectonic process of cratonic basin formation. Focused on the Silurian to Triassic Parnaíba cratonic basin of Brazil, the papers discuss the results of a multidisciplinary basin analysis project comprising new geophysical, geological and geochemical data. This unique dataset enables the characterization of the lithospheric crust and mantle beneath the Parnaíba Basin, constrains the detailed evolution of the basin itself, and enables comparisons with cratonic basins globally. Several convergent themes emerge providing new and powerful constraints for models of the driving mechanisms of these enigmatic basins.