Cenozoic volcanism II: the Canary Islands
Juan Carlos Carracedo, Francisco José Pérez Torrado, Eumenio Ancochea, Joaquín Meco, Francisco Hernán, Carmen Rosa Cubas, Ramón Casillas, Eduardo RodríGuez Badiola, Agustina Ahijado, 2002. "Cenozoic volcanism II: the Canary Islands", The Geology of Spain, W. Gibbons, Teresa Moreno
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The Canarian archipelago comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for c. 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast (Fig. 18.1). The islands have had a very long volcanic history, with formations over 20 million years old cropping out in the eastern Canaries. Thus all stages of the volcanic evolution of oceanic islands, including the submarine stage as well as the deep structure of the volcanoes, can be readily observed. Rainfall and vegetation cover are relatively low, with the exception of the island of La Palma, favouring both geological observation and rock preservation. Furthermore, the absence of surface water has promoted groundwater mining by means of up to 3000 km of subhorizontal tunnels (locally known as ‘galerías’). These galerías are especially numerous in Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro, and allow the direct observation and sampling of the deep structure of the island volcanoes without requiring expensive and indirect geophysical methods (Carracedo 1994, 1996a,b).
Since the early work of famous naturalists such as Leopold von Buch, Charles Lyell, and Georg Hartung, the Canaries have been viewed as a ‘special’ volcanic island group and their origin has been closely related to African continental tectonics (Fúster et al. 1968a,b,c,d; McFarlane & Ridley 1969; Anguita & Hernán 1975; Grunau et al. 1975). However, a
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The Geology of Spain
This book provides the first comprehensive account in English of the geology of mainland Spain and the Balearic and Canary islands. It has been written by 159 research-active, mostly Spanish authors working together in teams from over 20 universities and other centres of research excellence. The 19 chapters begin with an overview of Spanish geology prepared by the editors, followed by a detailed examination of Iberian Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks in Spain, Variscan magmatism and tectonics, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary record and fossil record. Subsequent chapters deal with the Alpine orogeny in the Pyrenees, Betics and other mountain ranges of Spain and the Balearic Islands, and with Cenozoic magmatism, including the classic hot-spot-related volcanism of the Canary Islands. The final chapter focuses on economic and environmental geology, emphasizing metallic deposits and industrial minerals, hydrocarbon energy resources, water supply, and modern seismic hazard. Finally a bibliography of around 4000 references provides a uniquely valuable information source. Encompassing subjects as diverse as the origin of Spanish granites, the palaeogeographic and tectonometamorphic history of the Iberian plate, human evolution in the SW Mediterranean, and modern volcanism and earthquake activity, The Geology of Spain is a key reference work suitable not only for libraries across the world, but of interest to all researchers, teachers and students of SW European geology.