Cenozoic volcanism I: the Iberian peninsula
Cenozoic volcanic rocks in mainland Spain are located in the NE, east, SE and southern central parts of the peninsula (Fig. 17.1), and are mostly Neogene in age, although there was minor activity in both late Oligocene and Quaternary times (Fig. 17.2). Four main provinces can be recognized (Fig. 17.1): the SE volcanic province (SEVP, Cabo de Gata–Mazarrón–Cartagena); the Calatrava volcanic province in south central Spain (CVP); the NE volcanic province (NEVP, Ampurdán–Selva–Garrotxa); and the Gulf of Valencia volcanic province (GVVP), with both onshore and offshore emissions. The SEVP is the most heterogeneous and complex area with calc-alkaline (CA), high-K calc-alkaline (KCA), shoshonitic (SH) and ultrapotassic (UP) rocks, and alkaline basalts (AB). The CVP and NEVP are characterized by alkaline basalts, with occasional leucitites in the CVP. The GVVP contains CA rocks and AB, although the few available data on the offshore volcanism do not exclude a greater lithological variation.
Other outcrops of igneous rocks also exist but are either volumetrically insignificant, incompletely studied or of unconstrained age: the Málaga tholeiitic dyke swarms in the western Betics (Torres Roldán et al. 1986; Turner et al. 1999); the tholeiites of Alborán island (Bellon & Brousse 1977; Aparicio et al. 1991); the volcaniclastic layer of the Lanaja– Peñalba area in the Ebro basin (Odin et al. 1997); and the basaltic neck of Nuévalos in the Iberian Ranges (Ancochea et al. 1987; Hoyos et al. 1998).
Figures & Tables
This book provides the first comprehensive account in English of the geology of mainland Spain and the Balearic and Canary islands. It has been written by 159 research-active, mostly Spanish authors working together in teams from over 20 universities and other centres of research excellence. The 19 chapters begin with an overview of Spanish geology prepared by the editors, followed by a detailed examination of Iberian Precambrian and Palaeozoic rocks in Spain, Variscan magmatism and tectonics, and the Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary record and fossil record. Subsequent chapters deal with the Alpine orogeny in the Pyrenees, Betics and other mountain ranges of Spain and the Balearic Islands, and with Cenozoic magmatism, including the classic hot-spot-related volcanism of the Canary Islands. The final chapter focuses on economic and environmental geology, emphasizing metallic deposits and industrial minerals, hydrocarbon energy resources, water supply, and modern seismic hazard. Finally a bibliography of around 4000 references provides a uniquely valuable information source. Encompassing subjects as diverse as the origin of Spanish granites, the palaeogeographic and tectonometamorphic history of the Iberian plate, human evolution in the SW Mediterranean, and modern volcanism and earthquake activity, The Geology of Spain is a key reference work suitable not only for libraries across the world, but of interest to all researchers, teachers and students of SW European geology.